Cooplands diversifiesCooplands (Doncaster) is offering up its meeting rooms and training facilities for hire. As well as providing stationery and a projector, it is also offering refreshments and a buffet service with biscuits and cakes supplied straight from its bakery.Boost for the blindNational frozen bread supplier Lantmännen Unibake UK organised a hands-on Halloween bakery class for visually impaired and blind children to support the Berkshire County Blind Society. Primary and secondary schoolchildren were invited to the company’s development kitchens to make pumpkin and witch cake pops.Funded technical postGwynedd-based Cae Groes Bakery has signed a deal with The Food Technology Centre, which will see it assist with funding a new technical post at the firm. The post will enable the successful applicant to brainstorm new product ideas, while providing them with hands-on experience in developing and supervising quality control procedures.Aromatic anniversaryFunctional ingredients developer and producer Aromatic has celebrated its 75th anniversary. The firm, in Stockholm, Sweden, has a standalone company in the UK and offers ingredients for breads and cakes, including shelf-life improvers and flavours.
The renovation of Harvard’s Sherman Fairchild Building may have seemed inconsequential to the casual observer because the exterior barely changed. However, as a result of a two-year demolition and reconstruction project to accommodate the Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Department (SCRB), the interior has been transformed into one of the University’s greenest and most efficient laboratory spaces.The project, the first to utilize Harvard’s 2009 Green Building Standards to guide project development, recently received the Faculty of Arts and Sciences’ (FAS) first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Commercial Interiors Platinum certification — the highest rating possible — from the U.S. Green Building Council. The certification follows the registration of Harvard’s 100th LEED green building project, which is the build-out of the laboratory for incoming Professor Daniel Nocera.“Laboratories are the most energy-intensive spaces on campus. As part of our goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 30 percent by 2016, Harvard has focused on creating greener, healthier labs through a combination of energy-efficient renovations, resource conservation, and partnering with researchers to promote energy-saving practices in their labs,” said Jeremy Bloxham, Mallinckrodt Professor of Geophysics and dean of science in FAS.From the beginning of the design process, the project team was committed to meeting clearly defined sustainability goals. Harvard’s Life Cycle Costing Calculator was used to vet cost-effective energy systems that will reduce the building’s ongoing environmental footprint and operational costs. The team also worked extensively with researchers and building operations staff to ensure that the finished space would maximize energy efficiency and resource conservation while meeting their cutting-edge research needs.“The SCRB faculty and administrators responded enthusiastically to the challenge of designing and operating green laboratories. Together with the FAS Project Team, we created labs that really deliver on the promise of energy-saving design and technology without sacrificing the scientific research to be conducted in the buildings,” said SCRB Executive Director Kathryn Link.The new energy efficiency measures include an internal heat shift chiller to capture heat from high-load zones and redistribute it to other parts of the building, occupancy sensors on fume hoods so they close automatically when not in use, heat recovery from zebrafish tank exhaust air, and windows to provide natural ventilation in nonlab spaces. Designers also targeted electricity use by reducing overhead lighting and including LED task lighting at laboratory benches. By reducing air flow change rates during unoccupied periods with the use of occupancy sensors, the building is estimated to consume 11 percent less electricity and 51 percent less steam annually.“The new space dramatically reduces the amount of energy used per occupant, thanks to state-of-the-art energy-reduction technologies, such as the internal heat shift chiller and heat recovery system,” said Michael Lichten, associate dean of physical resources and planning at FAS. “The healthy, productive and creative laboratory workplaces also maximize use of daylight and fresh air, while optimizing an indoor environment that responds to a diverse range of research and office demands.”Extensive water conservation measures include the use of re-captured “gray” water for toilet flushing, and low-flow fixtures that are projected to reduce water use 42 percent below the maximum required by building codes. The recycled water will appear blue to identify it as nonpotable.“Now that Bauer Laboratories and the Sherman Fairchild Building are fully occupied and buzzing with research, the whole SCRB community of scientists, staff, and students has gone green by hosting the first lab-oriented environmental competition at FAS, piloting a very successful plastics-to-glass lab supplies program, and championing the use of tap over bottled or delivered drinking water. We plan to continue these efforts moving forward and cultivate a culture of sustainability,” continued Link.Researchers have also participated in the FAS Freezer Maintenance Program to improve the longevity of the -20 and -80 degree freezers, to achieve energy savings, to improve sample security, and to reduce the risk of freezer failure.“Because laboratory research is so resource-intensive, we as researchers have a special obligation to take whatever actions we can to reduce the environmental impact of our work. A major challenge for us as a community is to find ways to do this without compromising the scope and pace of our research,” said Dena Cohen, a research specialist in the Melton Lab. “We have focused on ways to reduce the huge amount of plastic that we put into the waste stream every day. By recycling as much as we can, and by substituting reusable glass products for plastic whenever possible, I think we have succeeded in dramatically reducing the amount of waste we produce, without impeding our research.”The Harvard green building and sustainability project team included the FAS Office of Physical Resources and Planning, the FAS Green Program, the Harvard Green Building Services, and the Harvard Office for Sustainability. A LEED case study of the Sherman Fairchild project is posted on the Harvard Green Building Resource website.
The Spaniard has been linked with a number of clubs in recent weeks and the Latics’ relegation from the Premier League – despite also winning the FA Cup – has led to increased speculation about his future. Whelan said Thursday was ‘D-day’ for Martinez, but he remained hopeful that not only would the 39-year-old stay, but also agree a contract extension. “We have had a constructive meeting today and Roberto wants 24 hours to speak to his wife and decide what he wants to do,” he said. “He needs a bit of time, which I think is fair, and tomorrow we will know – it is decision day.” Martinez, who has 12 months left on his existing contract, has been one of the front-runners for the vacant Everton job following David Moyes’ move to Manchester United. However, Tony Pulis’ departure from Stoke on Tuesday would give him another Premier League option while confirmation Manuel Pellegrini and his coaching staff are leaving Malaga could raise the possibility of him returning to his homeland. But there is also a chance Martinez, who has previously turned down Aston Villa and was on Liverpool’s short-list to succeed Kenny Dalglish last summer, will remain at the DW Stadium and try to get the club back into the Premier League at the first attempt. “I told him exactly as I saw it: his future for the next two years lies with Wigan Athletic,” added Whelan. “If he wants to opt out of his contract and go then there is a bit of compensation to be paid but I hope that won’t be the case. “I hope he will extend his contract. As I see it there are two (Premier League) clubs available and does each club want him? “We are talking about Roberto for the whole of Europe. I am not sure which club or the other has approached him but I am sure the club which will approach him will be bigger than Wigan. I hope he stays but tomorrow I will be able to tell you.” Wigan manager Roberto Martinez is to decide his future in the next 24 hours, according to chairman Dave Whelan. Press Association
Holmwood Technical High, the Inter-secondary Schools Sports Association rural senior champions, will be seeking their eighth all-island title today when the 2015 season comes to an end today with the national finals at Clarendon Park in May Pen. Action starts at 1 p.m. with the junior final between Denbigh and Gaynstead. The senior final will follow between Holmwood and Camperdown, the urban champions. It should be an epic encounter between seven-time Holmwood and Camperdown. Holmwood will start favourites after they scored a one-sided win over Titchfield High in the rural finals. Camperdown, on the other hand, were pushed to extra-time by St Hugh’s. Both coaches are upbeat going into today’s encounter. “We do not expect anything less than a victory,” Holmwood’s coach, Carlene Graham-Powell, said. She added: “Our girls play hard every time they take the court, and I expect another good game from them, and I have no doubt that they will be victorious today.” Goal shooter Tracyann Francis of Holmwood was outstanding in the rural senior final and will be a key player for Holmwood today. A majority of the Camperdown players have been playing together for the past five years and four have represented the country at the junior level. Coach Wayne Stewart thinks this is a plus for his team. “We did not see Holmwood on Tuesday … but our girls are ready for the occasion. They have played together for a number of years and have gelled well, and we are confident that Camperdown will win their first all-island title,” Stewart said. Goal shooter Idara McCarthy and goal attack Ramona Lawrence will be key players for Camperdown. Denbigh will be appearing in the junior final for a third straight final, and after losing back to back to Queen’s, they will be hoping to win against first-time finalists Gaynstead. “Our team is a very young one … but I expect them to win and make up for their disappointment in the past two years where they lost to Queen’s,” said Janice Walker, coach of Denbigh. Sports coordinator Derrick Brown of Gaynstead is also looking forward to a victory for his girls. “The girls are very confident and I have no doubt in my mind that they will win. As long as they stay focused and follow instructions, they should go all the way,” said Brown.
The Colorado Plateau is a huge region covering parts of four states. It’s over a mile higher than its surroundings, but its layers are remarkably flat. How did this region, littered with marine fossils, rise into the sky? Three American scientists writing in Nature last week believe they have a mechanism:1 it heated from underneath and rose like a cake. Explaining a vast heterogeneous region like the Colorado Plateau is tricky. The plateau includes the Grand Canyon and the other amazing landforms of the Four Corners Region – Bryce Canyon, Zion, Canyonlands, Arches, Capitol Reef, Grand Staircase, Lake Powell, Petrified Forest, Dinosaur, and numerous other local parks. There are mountain ranges, sediment layers miles deep, meandering river gorges, faults, volcanoes and areas where strata have been tilted 90° laterally for many miles. Moreover, this plateau sits within the middle of a tectonic plate. It’s not at the margins where most of the dramatic geological changes on earth takes place. “The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate,” they acknowledged. This vast area in Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona “experienced ~2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation.” That fact is clearly evident at the lookouts of the Grand Canyon. Geological layers extend as flat as a pancake as far as the eye can see. It takes a lot of delicately-balanced force to lift up a region this large without deforming it. Imagine how you would you try to pick up a Guinness World Record layer cake the size of a city block and keep it from breaking.2 To try to get a grip on complex systems, scientists employ models. These allow them to focus on certain aspects they deem important without getting bogged down in details. The danger is that different scientists may disagree on the salient features needing to be explained. In addition, uncooperative details cannot be ignored; they might falsify the model. Roy, Jordan and Pederson began by pointing out flaws in previous models. Note: the “Laramide orogeny” is a mountain-building episode that supposedly built the Rockies and other mountain ranges from Alaska to Mexico. It is presumed to have occurred in the mid-Cenozoic between 80 and 35 million years ago. Isostasy refers to the floating of crust on mantle; epeirogeny means large-scale crustal deformation. The Basin and Range province includes the parallel mountain ranges and valleys of Nevada to the west. The Cenozoic era follows the Cretaceous and is typically dated 65 million years ago to the present.Previous ideas for Colorado Plateau rock and/or surface uplift fall into four categories: early- to mid-Cenozoic Laramide-orogeny-related shortening; mid- to late-Cenozoic epeirogeny; stream incision, and isostatic responses; and dynamic uplift. Here we show that even if the contributions from minor Laramide deformation and flexural isostatic responses to extension at the plateau margins and to net Cenozoic erosion are removed, there is >1.6 km of residual rock uplift that must be explained by post-Laramide tectonic processes. Dynamic uplift mechanisms can drive only 400�500 m of this residual amount, leaving approx 1.2 km of unexplained rock uplift.Then they introduced their model:We propose thermal perturbation and re-equilibration as a general mechanism for driving rock uplift within plate interiors, particularly in regions of thicker, more depleted lithosphere adjacent to zones of extension, such as the Colorado Plateau. Our model differs from previous ideas of thermal modification of the Colorado Plateau in that it relies on a post-Laramide process that is triggered by the removal of the Farallon slab and the onset of thinning in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift provinces. We show that thermal perturbation following mid-Tertiary removal of the Farallon slab can account for the majority of the observed rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and, additionally, that this mechanism explains the observed rates of encroachment of the onset of Cenozoic magmatism onto the plateau.The bulk of their paper explained the details of their model. It is important to realize that no model of a historical episode can be proven, or even adequately tested. At best, scientists can try to find data consistent with it, and see if the overall scenario explains the bulk properties of the system. A good model should also make predictions.3 These scientists felt that by having a slab of rock slide away under the plateau, leading to increased heating from the mantle, they could explain the 2 km rise. A model is never the final answer, however. “Future, more detailed, comparisons with phase relationships in a melting model must incorporate variable chemistry and hydration of source regions and changes in both chemical and thermal buoyancy during and following the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up,” they said. They did not return to the observation that the layers are flat and largely undeformed.1. Roy, Jordan and Pederson, “Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere,” Nature 459, 978-982 (18 June 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature08052.2. Note also that this is just the latest uplift. Geologists believe this vast area rose and sank several times without significant deformation. In the Grand Canyon, for instance, the Hermit formation (marine) is very flat along the Bright Angel Trail. But the Coconino Sandstone, supposedly consisting of petrified sand dunes from a desert, sits just as flat on top of it. Above those, the Kaibab and Toroweap limestones sit as testaments to another undersea episode. Thousands of feet of more layers from alternating wet and dry periods are above those. It stretches credulity to think that these layers bobbed up and down repeatedly without deforming.3. The fallacy of “affirming the consequent” renders many predictions dubious: “p predicts q; q occurs; therefore p caused q.” Just because a prediction is confirmed, it does not guarantee that no other model could account for it. In fact, there could be an infinite number of other theories that could account for the phenomenon. This is what caused Karl Popper to jettison prediction as a criterion of science and propose falsification instead (but falsification only lasted a couple of decades before other philosophers discounted its value in science).One of the things CEH wishes to educate its readers on is how to be a good skeptic. Laypeople tend to exalt anything published in a scientific paper as something to honor just because it is found in a scientific journal. You wouldn’t give a politician unqualified honor, so don’t give it to a scientist. He needs to prove his case. Learn to be bold. Examine, test, reason, and question. Even if you don’t understand all the jargon, you can learn to discern baloney and flawed reasoning. Skeptics will find many reasons to doubt this model. For one, it is married to the geologic column and evolutionary timescale. This forced them to tie phenomena to an artificial system rather than let the data speak for themselves. They could not dare to stray outside the paradigm. Getting something to fit within a paradigm, however, is not the same thing as explaining it in the real world. Another problem is that they employed question-begging terms masquerading as scientific explanations. For instance, look at the term orogeny (mountain-creating). What made the Rocky Mountains? Answer: the Laramide Orogeny. This is equivalent to answering a child’s question about why a ball falls by saying “because of gravity.” What’s gravity?, the child asks. Answer: A force that makes balls fall. Should the kid be satisfied to learn that the ball falls because it falls, or mountains form because mountain-building forces formed them? But that is how a previous model explained it: the plateau lifted up dynamically because of “dynamic uplift.” Even a kid would know that’s a dodge. Giving it a proper name like Laramide doesn’t help. Example: What ancient people built this cliff dwelling? Answer: the Anasazi. Well, since the word Anasazi means “ancient ones,” the answer provides no information, even though it sounds sophisticated. Another cause for skepticism is the ad hoc nature of the model. The scientists imagined a plate slipping under the middle of another plate, that caused heating, and then the whole region rose 2 kilometers. How convenient. Have they really explained it, or did they just make up a story to get their model to work? Another ad hoc speculation not mentioned in this paper but stated in many Grand Canyon guidebooks is that huge time periods are missing between the layers. The entire Ordovician and Silurian systems are not found in Grand Canyon, for example. You can take one step on the Bright Angel Trail between conformable layers and they will tell you that you just stepped across 100 million years of “missing” geological time. What? The explanation does not rely on empirical evidence, but on the absence of evidence! There are several places where strata are missing. Almost a billion years is missing between the Great Unconformity and the overlying Tapeats Sandstone. No evidence for the erosion that would be expected over such vast periods of time can be found. Perhaps the biggest cause for skepticism, though, is the ignoring of important details of the Colorado Plateau that would falsify the theory (see Glittering Generalities). Their model explained nothing about the lack of deformation. How could these layers be lifted up 2 kilometers without buckling? Many strata in the Grand Canyon cover hundreds of square miles – some of them, indeed, extend across much of North America. This is comparable to a sheet of paper several miles in extent being lifted up without tearing or tilting. Explaining how these layers could rise and fall over and over without deforming is arguably more important than explaining how they rose at all. Isn’t that the question they should be asking? In addition, the lack of erosion between many of the layers should falsify the belief that they were laid down over millions of years. And the fact that faults and folds extend through all the layers, but don’t stop halfway up, makes the hypothesis of vast time periods implausible. Numerous other evidences indicate that the strata in the Colorado Plateau must have been laid down rapidly and catastrophically, but these were all completely ignored in their effort to present a model that comports with the secular evolutionary paradigm, only because Charlie & Charlie (Darwin and Lyell) needed lots of time for their slow, gradual processes to build scientists out of slime. When reading details of a scientific paper, don’t lose sight of the belief system that generates the explanation. This explanation was restricted to the secular evolutionary paradigm. It has no necessary correlation, therefore, to the true history of the world. Moreover, it did not honestly deal with the alternatives and with many falsifying details. It ignored voices of anyone outside the paradigm. Jargon or not, math or not, such self-fulfilling, paradigm-preserving projects should not be honored with the noble name of science.(Visited 28 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Elderly people who have a sense of purpose live longer, reported Science Daily. Scientists at Rush University Medical Center monitored 1,238 community-living seniors for five years in order to test the hypothesis that purpose in life affects mortality. “Purpose in life,” explained research leader Patricia Boyle, “reflects the tendency to derive meaning from life’s experiences and be focused and intentional.” After adjusting for other factors, the team found that persons with a high sense of purpose were half as likely to die during the monitoring period. The statistics held across racial differences, income, and other medical conditions. To flourish, to age successfully, we need to have a sense that our lives matter, the team found. The study did not factor in religious commitment, but asked participants for their feelings about these statements:I sometimes feel as if I’ve done all there is to do in life.I used to set goals for myself, but that now seems like a waste of time.My daily activities often seem trivial and unimportant to me.Boyle was excited about the results of the study because it shows that people can take positive steps to improve their well-being. “Although we think that having a sense of purpose in life is important across the lifespan, measurement of purpose in life in older persons in particular may reveal an enduring sense of meaningfulness and intentionality in life that somehow provides a buffer against negative health outcomes,” she said.It’s very difficult to account for all the factors in statistical surveys such as this, but it stands to reason that a will to live for a purpose is a healthy attitude. It doesn’t mean your cancer will not kill you, or that you will necessarily outlive a depressed person, but we should employ all the strategies we can for healthy living. A weakness of studies like this is the lack of accounting for the object of purposefulness. It’s like saying that having faith is good. Faith in what? Not all faith is healthy or wise. Some faith is stupid. Some is dangerous. Should we have faith that when we leap out the window we will fly? The key to healthy purposefulness is having the right object for it. For a negative example, what if your purpose was to hurt as many people as you can before you die? or to indulge in all the vain pleasures you can, like some Hollywood movies portray the good life of a terminally ill patient? It would be hard to consider one’s last breath satisfying if that is all there is to life, and there is no hope beyond. How would a sense of purpose evolve? This study would make no sense in a Darwinian world view. An evolutionary biologist would have to pity an elderly person believing he or she has purpose. Why? Because to an evolutionist, such things are an illusion. But if that were true, why have a purpose to be a scientist? Evolutionary “purpose” defeats itself. There’s only one purpose that matters: to know Who put you here, and to please Him. He alone knows what makes us tick. He wrote the Operations Manual. He revealed how He is to be found, and what we are supposed to be doing in life. Before we can live a healthy purpose-filled life, we have to realize that we have the wrong purpose by default. We all desire to please ourselves. We have an innate tendency to choose the wrong path. We have to turn around, admit our lostness, and receive His pardon purchased by Christ on the cross. Then we can have confidence that our lives matter. Paul wrote about this eloquently in I Corinthians 15 (a very appropriate passage for this entry). This chapter is all about purpose and the justification for purpose. If Christ did not rise from the dead, Paul said, then we are of all men most pitiable – we should eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die, if the dead are not raised. But because Christ died and rose again, He can raise us to eternal life with the same power He had in his resurrection. That eternal life doesn’t start when you die; it begins the moment you trust Him for it. What’s more, it begins a relationship with your Maker in which you can join in His purpose for the world. The purpose He gives is not just an emotion or illusion. It really matters. Paul concluded, “Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.” When you know your labor is not in vain, you have joy! You can go at your work with enthusiasm. That’s healthy. Are you elderly and feeling worthless? Maybe not yet (but see Ecclesiastes 12). Are you agreeing with those three fatalistic questions the researchers asked? Consider the Creator’s purpose for you. Your life matters to him. Don’t waste your life on earthly things that don’t satisfy (read the book of Ecclesiastes for the ultimate example). You were made on purpose for purpose. Even if you are old or infirm, there is always something you can do. You can pray, for instance. You can be an example of endurance. You can encourage others. Read our online book for a real-life testimony. When your prayer includes Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven, you have solid ground for a meaningful, joyful purpose that will help you flourish in life, and that will outlast the grave.(Visited 11 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Both planets have abundant sulfur, but Earth life has a way of cycling it for good.The recent evidence for active volcanism on Venus (Science Magazine, Science Daily) has excited planetary scientists who long suspected it. Eight years ago, spikes in sulfur dioxide measurements provided indirect evidence; now, hot spots detected by the ESA’s Venus Express orbiter seem to confirm the presence of lava lakes on the surface (New Scientist). Sulfur has a deathly presence at our hellish twin planet. In the atmosphere, it forms droplets of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), adding insult to the injury of temperatures approaching 900° F.Earth has plenty of sulfur as well. In fact, the core may be “brimming with brimstone” (Science Magazine) if that explains why it is lighter than expected. The Biblical references were not unnoticed by Live Science:Biblical views of the center of the Earth as a hellish pit raging with fire and brimstone have some support from new research. Scientists have found that the vast majority of brimstone — reverently referred to in biblical times as “burning stone,” but now known more commonly as sulfur — dwells deep in the Earth’s core.“In a way, we can also say that we have life imitating art,” study lead author Paul Savage, a research scientist in the Department of Earth Sciences at Durham University in the United Kingdom, said in a statement.”For millennia, tales have been told of the underworld being awash with fire and brimstone. Now at least, we can be sure of the brimstone.”Writer Elizabeth Goldbaum provided no Scripture references that claim hell is at the center of the earth, but that’s beside the point. What matters is that Earth’s sulfur economy is radically different from that on Venus.We know of Earth’s water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle and oxygen cycle. There’s also a sulfur cycle. Science Daily reports that 90% of Earth’s sulfur may be locked up in the core, but the element plays a prominent role in life on the surface, too. Our own bodies rely on sulfur, according to Healthy.net; it is found in hair, nails, and skin, and in every cell:Sulfur is present in four amino acids: methionine, an essential amino acid; the nonessential cystine and cysteine, which can be made from methionine; and taurine, which is not part of body tissues but does help produce bile acid for digestion. Sulfur is also present in two B vitamins, thiamine and biotin; interestingly, thiamine is important to skin and biotin to hair. Sulfur is also available as various sulfates or sulfides. But overall, sulfur is most important as part of protein.Years ago, Benton C. Clark at NASA speculated that sulfur could be a “fountainhead of life” that could provide a biomarker for the search for life on other planets. Everyone knows the importance of water, but he said, “it will be my theme that sulfur compounds may be of equivalent rank and may well permit the proliferation of life in certain environments not otherwise considered hospitable.”Venus shows, however, that sulfur compounds alone, whether sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, or hydrogen sulfide (the “rotten egg gas” at hot springs) are not necessarily related to life, and can even be toxic. What makes the difference on Earth? The sulfur is made available by microbes in a form that can be utilized by cells.The Life ConnectionIn “Sourcing the smell of the seaside,” Nicholas S. Wigginton in Science Magazine summed up new research in a new paper in Science. “Marine phytoplankton plays a critical role in the global sulfur cycle,” Wigginton says, particularly the algae that contain an enzyme that produces dimethyl sulfide (DMS), an aromatic compound that gives some of that seaside aroma to the beach. DMS forms condensation nuclei for clouds, which release more sulfur from the land as rain falls. It’s remarkable to ponder how this one enzyme has global effects:The presence of this gene in other globally distributed phytoplankton and corals suggests that it may serve as a reliable indicator of DMS production across diverse phyla. Because DMS gets oxidized to sulfur aerosols, which act as cloud condensation nuclei, this enzyme is a key global biogeochemical catalyst.“Biogeochemical” — that links biology to geology to global chemistry. Andrew Johnston, in his commentary on the paper in Science, provides more detail about the cycle. DMS is cleaved from dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by an abundant marine alga named Emiliania huxleyi. That puts this beautiful little coccolithophore microbe, covered with decorative plates, as a key player in the global sulfur cycle. Johnston writes,DMSP is one of the most important and abundant organic molecules in the world, with a billion metric tons made and turned over every year. A signature molecule for life at sea, it is produced by marine macroalgae as well as by single-cell phytoplankton species, such as diatoms, dinoflagellates, and—as in this case—the haptophyte E. huxleyi. It most likely serves to protect organisms to survive osmotic stress, although other functions have been suggested, ranging from defense against grazing to protection against oxidative and other stresses….The cleavage products are also of interest, particularly the volatile DMS, at least 10 million metric tons of which are released into the atmosphere annually. DMS is a component of the tangy aroma of the seaside and functions as a chemical attractant that guides various marine animals—including some sea birds, invertebrates, and even mammals—toward potential food supplies. Not only does the release of DMS into the atmosphere contribute substantially to the global flux of sulfur from sea to air and back to land via precipitation but also DMS oxidation products act as condensation nuclei, causing water molecules to coalesce, with possible effects on local climate through enhanced cloud formation.The organism can also synthesize DMSP, as can other organisms like dinoflagellates that are “taxonomically very distant” from it. The biosynthesis of DMSP from sulfur-containing amino acids is a complex 5-step process that only a few organisms can perform (source); it requires “successive action of four different enzymes” (Nature). The spread of this ability across unrelated organisms suggests to Johnston that the gene might have been obtained by “long range horizontal gene transfer” or independent evolution. The capability to cleave DMSP appears also in sea lettuce and other seaweed-like algae. “It is now clear that DMSP lyases exist in both eukaryotes and bacteria,” he notes, “but they must function in different ways, because Alma1 bears no resemblance to any of the known bacterial lyases.” The authors of the original paper say, “it is clear that DMS production by bacteria DMSP lyases has a fundamental role in the oceanic sulfur and carbon cycles” that sustain life on our planet.So what’s the difference between the fire and brimstone on Venus and the fire and brimstone on Earth? It comes down to information. Genes contain codes that instruct living cells how to take sulfur, convert it into complex forms, break it down into other forms, and keep it cycling through the air, the oceans, and the land. That’s what makes Earth a heaven and not a hell.So many things like this we take for granted. The sulfur in an egg or steak didn’t just ooze out of the ground. It is the product of a long series of complex enzymes, coded for in genes, that knew how to take a simple element with 16 protons and turn it into useful biomolecules. How did the Earth get by without this information? Evolutionists believe that all this complex organic chemistry had to be invented by chance over millions of years. How did the first life get by without the sulfur cycle and all the other cycles that are intertwined with the biosphere? It’s a complex, networked system where every player benefits and contributes. Take out the DMS, and you don’t get the rain. Take out the enzymes, and you don’t get the DMS.The thought that life controls the world is amazing. Sulfur from geology gets built up into DMSP in complex creatures that know organic chemistry, taking building blocks through four successive actions of different enzymes. DMSP is then cleaved by other enzymes and released into the atmosphere as DMS which, in turn, forms clouds that rain on the earth and leach more sulfur from the rocks. How did the algae know that sending a gas into the air would bring them more sulfur in the oceans? It’s like a global economy with many different actors contributing to the whole. This is powerful evidence of planning, intention, and design. It takes an element we associate with rotten smells, acid and hellfire, and turns it into a heavenly sweetness. God can do that for our corrupt souls, too, if we repent and trust Him. (Visited 110 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
3 Quick Tips for Successful GeocachingPerfecting your geocaching treasure-hunting technique takes practice. The best kind of practice is simply to geocache more. Here are 3 quick tips that can help add more joy to geocaching for new cachers and those who have a few finds under their belts.1) Set Yourself up for Success — Start your first geocaching adventure looking for difficulty 1, terrain 1 geocaches. Check the logs to make sure the geocache has been found recently. This will let you know the geocache will be in place. Search for a “regular” or larger geocache that has at least a few Favorite Points.2) Know Your Cache Containers — Geocaches are often cleverly hidden. They might be camouflaged to look like a rock or to blend into the environment. Check out this video to see 5 Geocaches in 30 Seconds. If you’re still stumped while looking for a geocache, check out the recent logs and the hint. As a last resort, you can email the cache owner for an additional hint.3) Find a Geocaching Friend — Geocachers love to share the location-based adventure. Attend a local geocaching event to meet other geocachers. They’ll be glad to help with any questions and offer a wealth of knowledge into geocaching around your region.Once you’ve found your first geocache, make sure to write a log thanking the cache owner and detailing your adventure. You might even spice up your log with some geocaching lingo like TFTC (Thanks for the Cache) or TNLN (Took Nothing Left Nothing). You’ll be a geocaching pro in no time. Check out the benefits of Premium Membership to really kick your geocaching adventure into high gear.Trackable Week 2012Join your fellow geocachers in celebrating all things Trackable on the official Geocaching.com blog from Sept 17th through the 23rd. How far has the furthest active Trackable traveled? Who’s the 14-year-old that has moved more than 25,000 Trackables (so far)? And who do you think will win the Great 2013 Geocaching Block Party Travel Bug Race? Watch the official Geocaching.com blog for the answers to these questions and more about trackable Geocoins, Travel Bugs® and Promotional Trackables. You’ll be able to share your favorite Trackable stories for a chance to win a rare and coveted Geocoin.During Trackable Week 2012, special discounts on Trackables and limited time special offers will be available through Shop Geocaching and Shop Geocaching Participating Vendors around the world.Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedThree Quick Tips for Successful GeocachingSeptember 25, 2018In “News”Be a better hiderAugust 21, 2018In “News”Geocaching in Harmony with Nature (Part 2)November 23, 2013In “Community”
Kris Aquino ‘pretty chill about becoming irrelevant’ View comments Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH LATEST STORIES Spieth falls further from the lead at the Australian Open The Philippines lost out to China in its hosting bid in the 2019 Fiba World Cup.It hasn’t served as the hosts of the biggest international basketball tournament since 1978, where Yugoslavia won the title.Japan last staged the Fiba World Cup in 2006 in Saitama, while Indonesia has yet to hold the said event.Argentina has hosted the basketball competition twice before, in the inaugural staging in 1950 and in 1990, both in Buenos Aires, while its partner Uruguay held it in 1967 in Montevideo.ADVERTISEMENT CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion The two bidders submitted their Host Nation Agreements on the deadline day, confirming their interest to hold the 19th edition of the Basketball World Cup.FIBA is pursuing the multi-country hosting becayse of its success in recent years according Fiba Secretary General Patrick Baumann.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“This was the case at the last two editions of the FIBA EuroBasket as well as at FIBA AfroBasket 2017 and the FIBA AmeriCup 2017. We are fully confident this formula will also work to great effect for our flagship competition. Furthermore, these are countries with rich basketball traditions and passionate fans.”Both candidates will present their proposals to the Fiba Central Board on December 9 and the Board will also award the hosting on the same day. Read Next QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC MOST READ INQUIRER FILE PHOTOThe Philippines is still in the running to host the 2023 Fiba World Cup as the international basketball federation trimmed down the candidates to just two.FIBA guaranteed that the 2023 edition will be staged in multiple countries for the first time as the three-nation bid of the Philippines, Japan, and Indonesia and the joint proposal of Argentina and Uruguay were selected as the finalists for the 32-team global hoops extravaganza.ADVERTISEMENT
FoxTel will serve up a double helping of Origin action with a two hour block of coverage of the 2006 State of Origin Series featuring back to back Women’s and Men’s Open games between traditional rivals Queensland and New South Wales on Wednesday 15 November 2006.The two States battled for the Origin crown across 13 age divisions at the Brisbane Metropolitan Touch Association’s Whites Hill Sporting Complex on 4-5 August 2006.Fox Sports 3 will show Game 3 of the Women’s Open and Game 2 of the Men’s Open Series in their entirity.The games will be replayed across the three Fox Sports channels during November, so be sure to organise yourself and your friends to catch all the action and excitement of the 2006 State of Origin Series on FoxTel.Please check FoxTel electronic guides for updated screening times and programming.Fox 3 Screening Times SOO for all States Wednesday 15 November 20062.00am (Women’s Game 3) 3.00am (Men’s Game 2) – WA3.30am (Women’s Game 3) 4.30am (Men’s Game 2) – NT4.00 am (Women’s Game 3) 5.00am (Men’s Game 2) – QLD4.30am (Women’s Game 3) 5.30am (Men’s Game 2) – SA5.00am (Women’s Game 3) 6.00am (Men’s Game 2) – NSW, ACT, VIC, TAS