Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. By Alex Horenstein, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Miami and Konrad Grabiszewski, Associate Professor of Economics, Prince Mohammad Bin Salman College (MBSC) of Business & EntrepreneurshipGovernments all around the world are trying to contain the spread of the coronavirus. Making it mandatory for people to wear face masks is a policy that has gained favor among many national governments and state authorities in the United States.Yet any policy that attempts to modify people’s behavior – in this case, making mask-wearing a new norm – needs to take into account undesired behavioral adjustments that the policy may bring about. As behavioral economists, we know that without such consideration, the policy is bound to be less efficient than expected.Here are two behavior alterations to look out for as mask-wearing becomes more commonplace.As masks become the norm, there might be unexpected, unconscious tweaks in other behavior. Sean Gardner/Getty Images News via Getty Images North AmericaWearing masks, not washing handsWhen things get safer, people adjust their behavior and act more recklessly. This phenomenon, called the Peltzman effect, has been documented in areas as diverse as driving, sports and financial markets, as well as in drug overdose and pregnancy prevention.The mechanism is always the same: A safety measure (a seat belt in the case of driving or a government bailout in the case of investing) allows the recipient to take more risk (driving faster or investing in more risky instruments). In the end, the behavior becomes less responsible. In fact, a safety measure can make the activity more dangerous.It’s easy to imagine how this could be the case with COVID-19 and face masks. Here, going into public spaces is an activity with an associated risk of getting infected. A face mask is a safety measure that is meant to decrease the probability of infection.But the Peltzman effect will have a detrimental effect on that probability: When people feel safer with a face mask, they ease off on other forms of prevention, such as carefully washing their hands or keeping social distance. In the worst case, the risk of infection could actually increase.Behaviorial science suggests, then, that making face masks mandatory must be accompanied by policies that maintain, if not increase, other forms of prevention. In particular, it’s important to educate the public that, on its own, a face mask is not going to prevent COVID-19 if people forget about practices like social distancing and washing hands.One could imagine a policy that makes not only face masks but also portable hand sanitizer mandatory. Public health education could work on turning mandatory face masks into visual reminders to wash hands frequently.Wearing masks, not staying homeThe Peltzman effect does not paint a complete story of how safety measures change individuals’ behavior.In our research, we discovered another phenomenon: Safety measures encourage the participation of those who, without these measures, would sit out the activity as too risky for them.For example, most people would not dare to join a NASCAR race or put their money in complex financial investments. These activities are just too risky. However, you might change your mind if accompanied by a professional NASCAR driver, making the race less dangerous, or if assured of a government bailout, making investing less risky. The safety measure becomes an invitation to participate.A mask offers some protection when worn properly but it’s not magical.Michael Hundt/AFP via Getty ImagesIn the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, this phenomenon translates into the following problem. Equipped with face masks and a misleading feeling of safety, those who otherwise should stay home – especially older folks and those with underlying illness – head out and about. Compared to the safety of home, they’d be exposed to a higher risk of infection.The solution here requires public health messaging to walk a fine line. Making face masks mandatory must be accompanied by education that face masks are imperfect protection against COVID-19. Masks vary greatly in their filtration efficiency. Leaving home in a face mask does not mean that the probability of infection has been reduced to zero. It is of paramount importance to educate those at higher risk of coronavirus infection.Whether governments should make face masks mandatory is a question of medical science and political will – and not one we even try to answer. But research in behavioral economics does anticipate the complex ways people may respond to such a policy and we suggest some ways to address them.This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. The Anatomy of Fear TAGSBehavior StudiesCoronavirusCOVID-19MasksRisksThe Conversation Previous articleFlorida gas prices move lower; cheapest July in 16 yearsNext articleFlorida’s largest teachers’ union sues to stop ‘reckless and unsafe’ school reopening mandate Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Please enter your name here Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Masks are a crucial tool for stopping the pandemic – but don’t let them give you a false sense of security. Patricia J. Garcinuno/Getty Images Entertainment via Getty Images Europe You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here Please enter your comment!
Multi-layered miniatures and choux towers were the tasks facing the five remaining teams this week.Returning to the kitchen were:Thibault & Erica, Kimpton Fitzroy HotelSarah & Leyre, Pennyhill ParkJake & Kevin, Four Seasons at Ten Trinity SquareSanjam & Exose, The Courthouse CheshirePauline & Robert, TigerlilyFirst up were the multi-layered miniatures, with 24 layered cheesecakes and 24 pear-shaped desserts requested. The cheesecakes had to have at least five layers, and the pear-shaped desserts a minimum of three fillings, with pear the most dominant flavour.I’ll spare you the vast number of pear-shaped jokes made by presenter Tom Allen.“Whatever they put on the table needs to be first-class, it needs to be top-drawer. However, be realistic about what you can do and what you can’t. Do not be over-ambitious,” said judge Cherish Finden ahead of the task.The chefs began by making layers for the cheesecake, so they could be placed in the freezer in plenty of time.Thibault & Erica chose to make a cheesecake with two baked elements – a coconut dacquoise and a baked raspberry cheesecake. Jake & Kevin opted for vanilla and passionfruit, Sanjam & Exose a chocolate orange variant and Pauline & Robert an Asian-inspired matcha and lychee combination.Meanwhile, as the only team opting to go for 10 layers, Sarah & Leyre (pictured below) created a white chocolate cheesecake with a spiced sponge and red fruit confit gel.“You know I have my ruler with me again,” warned Cherish. She is terrifying.For the pear-shaped desserts, four of the five teams went for classic sweet flavours, while Pauline & Robert included a goat’s cheese mousse.First to face the judgment of Benoit & Cherish were Sarah & Leyre with their 10-layer offering. Cherish said she didn’t need to get her ruler out for the cheesecakes – high praise indeed.Thibault & Erica’s cheesecake also got the thumbs-up, as did their pears.“Visually very safe: was the verdict on Jake & Kevin’s cheesecake, and their ratios were off, although the pear was deemed “quite pleasant”.Pauline & Robert’s cheesecake wasn’t highly finished, and the flavours confused Cherish. Also, their pears had fallen over, which Cherish likened to having a bum too big for the chair.“Good news, I can taste the goat’s cheese” said Benoit. “Bad news, I don’t like it.”Sanjam & Exose’s (pictured below) cheesecake was also deemed “safe”, and Cherish said their pears looked like they’d been in a fight. “I think you two are like rough diamonds,” said Benoit, somewhat cryptically.On day two, the professionals were tasked with making a towering Pièce Montée, with 180 filled choux buns displayed in a cone shape on a nougatine stand.Inspired by opera, Sarah & Leyre chose vanilla & pecan and chocolate & cherry flavours to fill their choux.Thibault & Erica opted for a fashion week theme, with cherry & chocolate and coffee & cardamom choux fillings.A British theme, with Eton Mess and rhubarb & custard fillings, was the choice for Sanjam & Exose.Meanwhile, creating a beehive-themed piece, Pauline & Robert planned to have sugarwork bees and flavoured choux fillings, including honeycomb & yuzu and elderflower & tonic.Kevin & Jake plumped for an ode to spring, with vanilla & orange blossom and red berry filled choux buns to complement this.All seemed to be going well until the chefs started on the nougatine; the speed at which this set proved problematic, with Sanjam & Exose’s breaking as it was cut. “I’m slowly giving up,” Sanjam admitted. And, if that weren’t dramatic enough, Exose’s gloves didn’t fit.Pauline & Robert were also having issues, but their problem was the sugarwork bees. “I can’t do it,” Robert declared.Kevin & Jake were first to be judged, with their piece described as “very colourful” and “elegant”. The flavours got a thumbs-up too.Next were Sarah & Leyre, and while their showpiece looked the part, their choux wasn’t right.The judges loved the look of Thibault & Erica’s fashion-themed piece. “I can see this on the cover of a fashion magazine,” Cherish said. They liked the taste, too, with Cherish declaring: “You should be very proud of yourselves, you nailed it.”Pauline & Robert were next. “Where are the bees?” asked Cherish. Sore subject. The flavours were good, but the lack of bees let the team down.Last to face the judges were Sanjam & Exose. “Forget the diamond, this is rough” Benoit said, gesturing towards unfinished showpiece. Ouch.But a certain lack of buzz decided this week’s contest, with the bee-stricken Pauline & Robert leaving the competition. Thibault & Erica (pictured below) took the top spot, Jake & Kevin came in second, Sarah & Leyre third and Sanjam & Exose scraping into second-to-last place.