Camellias and the weevils that attack their seeds seem locked in conflict. The thicker a camellia grows its protective woody covering around its seeds, the longer the feeding tube on some weevil to break through and devour. John R. Thompson talked about such “coevolutionary arms races” in Current Biology1 and asked whether such wars can go on forever, leading to increased exaggeration of traits. The answer is, apparently, there are limits. Traits vary in a mosaic pattern across populations. Not all camellias are infested by beetles with the longest boring tools. As with any war, there are hotspots and coldspots. The dynamics of arms races seem to buffer both species against extremes.Collectively, these studies suggest that coevolution is a pervasive process that continually reshapes interspecific interactions across broad geographic areas. And that has important implications for our understanding of the role of coevolution in fields ranging from epidemiology to conservation biology. Many diseases, for example malaria, vary geographically both in parasite virulence and host resistance, potentially creating regions of coevolutionary hotspots and coldspots. The spread of introduced species seems be creating new geographic mosaics of coevolution as some species become invasive and coevolve with native species in different ways in different regions or drive rapid evolution in native species, sometimes in less than a hundred years or so. The results for Japanese camellia and camellia weevils reinforce the developing view that interactions coevolve as a geographic mosaic across landscapes, and it is often difficult for one partner to get ahead of the other (or others) everywhere. (Emphasis added.)1John R. Thompson, “Coevolution: The Geographic Mosaic of Coevolutionary Arms Races,” Current Biology, Volume 15, Issue 24, 24 December 2005, pages R992-R994, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.11.046.This appears to provide more slippage on the evolutionary treadmill (see 03/17/2003 entry). Though the word “evolution” is involved, don’t be confused; this has nothing to do with macroevolution, like bacteria evolving into people. Coevolution leads to exaggerated traits between two interacting species, like the beaks of hummingbirds and the flowers they pollinate. As with all other observed forms of microevolution, including Darwin’s famous finches, it involves the modification of existing traits – not the origin of new ones. Notice how quickly changes can result; Thompson referred to rapid “evolution” in native species in less than 100 years after an intruder was introduced. Young-earth creationists could use such concepts to explain the rapid diversification of varieties and species within created kinds, and there would be nothing Thompson or the Darwinists could do to prove them wrong. Studies like this do not establish that coevolution can be extrapolated endlessly into macroevolution. In fact, the quote above seems to indicate otherwise: there are limits to the amount of change in the “coevolutionary arms race.” World War II did not produce Superman. (Visited 65 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Dancers perform during the closing ceremony of the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, Saturday, Nov. 27, 2010. APThe skies lit up with dazzling fireworks as an emotional China brought the curtains down on the biggest Asian Games in a riot of colour, foot-tapping music and a cultural extravaganza at the Haixinsha Island on the Pearl River in Guangzhou on Saturday.If the opening ceremony held at the same riverside venue on November 12th was high on technical wizardry, the closing was a heart-touching display of warmth by the people of this South China city whose infrastructure has improved remendously as a result of hosting the Games which saw India record their best-ever medal haul till date.Late charge helps IndiaNov 26 | India record its bestCLOSING EVENT: SEE PHOTOSHIGHLIGHTSAsiad closing: Vijender India’s flagbearerIndia finished sixth on the medal rostrum with a record 14 gold, 17 silver and 33 bronze for an overall tally of 64, eclipsing their earlier record of 57 medals in the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi.South Korea’s Ji Youngjun celebrates with his national flag after winning the men’s marathon at the 2010 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, Saturday, Nov. 27, 2010. APThe closing ceremony was also used by the Games hosts to present cultural segments representing the different regions of the continent, including South Asia in which Indian singers Ravi Tripathi and Tanya Gupta enthralled the capacity crowd.Hosts China were unstoppable in their relentless march to titles and at the end of the Games had an incredible harvest of 199 gold in an overall haul of over 400 medals, proving once again that they are in the top-most echelons of world sports.advertisementKorea finished way behind in second place while Japan were third that underlined the fact that the Asian Games, the second largest sports event after the Olympic Games, are still being overwhelmingly dominated by the far eastern nations of the continent.The prelude to the official part of the ceremony was punctuated by dance of Qiling (a legendary animal symbolizing good luck) to celebrate the success of the Games that was followed by an exhibition of acrobatics and dance.Performers staged “Dragon drunk on the Pearl River”, “Painting of Toy figuring in Emotion” and “Wind of the Yao Ethnic Group” dances while flashbacks of the Asian Games actions were shown on sail-shaped screens before the Chinese President Hu Jintao and Olympic Council of Asia Chief Sheikh Ahmad Al-Fahad Al-Sabah entered the arena to the strains of the Chinese Military Band.With nine plumes of red smoke rising up from the Guangzhou Tower, an athlete jumped out of the screen while the eight sail-shaped screens showed some memorable moments of the Games competitions.The plumes changed shape one by one and the fireworks started on the Guangzhou Tower to symbolize the success of the Games and the happiness it produced. The five-starred red flag of China was unfurled and the hosts? national anthem was played by the Military band.A small cultural segment was then presented with fishing lights shaped as starlight and the crescent moon used as major props to create a dream-like atmosphere of changing colours and flowing figures, the images giving the crowd an impression of fairy tales and scenes of fishing.The face of a smiling child appeared which turned into a beautiful girl from this city of ten million who frolics in the night sky amidst the stars.When she extended her hand all the stars and moon fell into her grasp and she, with a laugh, threw the stars and moon to the Games Torch Tower in the centre of the square.As they fell to the ground, hundreds of children appeared like magic and scattered in all directions to form the Asian Games emblem.A ship resembling a crescent moon with singing children on board gently set sail on the front waterway and hundreds of chorus singers with stars in their hands in four groups entered from two sides.A child singer picked up a Lingnan-style fishing lantern made of bamboo splits ecclosed by paper from the water.Almost immediately several fishing lights in different colours appeared on the scene winding in groups or strings through the site as the children with star lights in their hands flashed those lights to give an impression of a sea of lights.This was followed by the representation of India and the Ganga with the holy river appearing on the sail-shaped screen and running towards the famous temples of India while the screen also showed images of the Taj Mahal and modern architecture.advertisementSeveral dancers led by Cai Yushan and Xi Chuhang performed to the singing of Tripathi and Gupta and there were also motorcycle stunts done in front of the Games Torch Tower.One hundred men performers with Indian flower wreaths in their hands danced in two groups behind the bikes and formed two crescent moons on both sides of the Torch Tower while over 1000 chorus members holding multi-coloured Indian light-reflecting towels danced in harmony.When the two Indian singers came to the front, male dancers ran along the two sides of the Torch Tower to form a triangular pattern and danced with gusto while around 200 women dancers ran out, divided themselves in two groups and performed various Indian dance forms.The men and women dancers came together to form a semi circle they danced together to the song in typical Bollywood style.The other regions of the continent were also given their prominence in the cultural milieu before flashbacks of the Asian Games competitions and athletes being awarded their medals were shown along with emotional scenes, symbolizing the excitement and harmony that was visible during the Games.The cultural show ended with all the participants coming on to the stage forming different patterns while singing and dancing with abandon to bring an end to the cultural part and the commencement of the formal part of the ceremony with the arrival of the athletes.The Indian flag was carried by gold medal winning star boxer Vijender Singh with his left hand in a cast following the thumb injury he sustained during last night’s final against two-time world champion Atoev Abbos of Uzbekistan.OCA President Sheikh Al-Sabah, accompanied by the president of the Chinese Olympic Committee, Liu Peng, executive president of the Games organizing committee Huang Huahua, and the mayor of Guangzhou Wan Qingliang, delivered the keynote address and declared the 16th Asiad closed.The OCA flag was then lowered and the OCA anthem played before the national flag of Korea, the next Games hosts at Incheon in 2014 was raised, in the presence of the vice president of the Korean Olympic Committee and the chief of the Incheon Games organizing committee.Guangzhou mayor Qingliang handed over the Asian Games torch to the OCA chief who, in turn, handed them over to the mayor of Incheon.Later the flag of the first Games held in Delhi in 1951 and the OCA flag were handed over to the Korean representatives by Huahua and Peng.The Koreans presented a short segment to the accompaniment of percussion instruments and taekwondo, the country’s martial arts, which is also part of the Games programme and “Welcome to Incheon” and “See you at Incheon in 2014” were flashed on the screen.The Games flame was extinguished before the fireworks lit up the night sky to signal the end of the closing ceremony.MORE MEDALS FOR CHINAEarlier, just five gold medals were on Saturday presented at the Asian Games, providing a rather slow-paced denouement for an event the Olympic Council of Asia president referred to as “one of the best ever.”advertisementZhou Chunxiu won the women’s marathon, giving China its 198th gold medal of the games, one shy of its eventual total. Myanmar took its first two – in the men’s and women’s doubles finals in sepaktakraw, and OCA chief Sheikh Ahmad Al-Fahad Al-Sabah told a closing news conference that even a military conflict on the Korean peninsula last Tuesday during the games could not damage the event’s image.North and South Korean “athletes stood shoulder-to-shoulder to compete even though there had been some problems in their countries,” Al-Sabah said.After 48 gold medals were presented Friday in a hectic penultimate day, Zhou won the first of the last-day medals when she finished the marathon in 2 hours, 25 minutes, about 90 seconds ahead of her Chinese compatriot Zhui Xiaolon. Kim Kum Ok of North Korea won the bronze.Ji Young-jun of South Korea won gold in the men’s marathon, finishing in 2:11.11, with Japan’s Yukihiro Kitaoka second. That ended China’s chances of capturing 200 gold medals at Guangzhou.Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, won its previous gold in sepak takraw in 1998 in the women’s regu division of the acrobatic volleyball-like sport in which competitors use just about everything but their hands to get a rattan ball over the net. Myanmar’s men beat South Korea 2-0 and its women defeated China 2-1.”We have a new flag and we are proud to have won the gold medal under it,” said Myanmar coach Kyaw Zin Moe.China won the first gold of the games on Nov. 13 when Yuan Xiaochao finished first in wushu martial arts event, and took the last on Saturday. The Chinese women’s volleyball team came back from two sets down to beat South Korea 21-25, 22-25, 25-10, 25-17, 16-14, leaving its final gold medal count for the games at 199.The closing ceremony, featuring a performance by the military band of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the official handover from Guangzhou to Incheon, was scheduled for later Saturday.With inputs from PTI/AP
FoxTel will serve up a double helping of Origin action with a two hour block of coverage of the 2006 State of Origin Series featuring back to back Women’s and Men’s Open games between traditional rivals Queensland and New South Wales on Wednesday 15 November 2006.The two States battled for the Origin crown across 13 age divisions at the Brisbane Metropolitan Touch Association’s Whites Hill Sporting Complex on 4-5 August 2006.Fox Sports 3 will show Game 3 of the Women’s Open and Game 2 of the Men’s Open Series in their entirity.The games will be replayed across the three Fox Sports channels during November, so be sure to organise yourself and your friends to catch all the action and excitement of the 2006 State of Origin Series on FoxTel.Please check FoxTel electronic guides for updated screening times and programming.Fox 3 Screening Times SOO for all States Wednesday 15 November 20062.00am (Women’s Game 3) 3.00am (Men’s Game 2) – WA3.30am (Women’s Game 3) 4.30am (Men’s Game 2) – NT4.00 am (Women’s Game 3) 5.00am (Men’s Game 2) – QLD4.30am (Women’s Game 3) 5.30am (Men’s Game 2) – SA5.00am (Women’s Game 3) 6.00am (Men’s Game 2) – NSW, ACT, VIC, TAS
Liverpool loanee Kane signs new extensionby Freddie Taylor10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool have penned Herbie Kane to a new contract and extended his loan spell with Doncaster Rovers.The 20-year-old midfielder has starred for League One side Rovers this season, scoring six goals from 26 appearances.”It is massive, coming from a massive club like Liverpool, so I’m happy,” Kane said after signing the new deal.”I was excited to get it done. It took a lot of hard work to get this, but thankfully it is done. Hopefully I can carry on working hard and get to where I want to be.”On his spell with Donny, he added: “I’ve enjoyed every minute of it, to be honest, I’m just trying to do as well as I can for myself and help the team, but also trying to improve.”Hopefully people at Liverpool notice that I’m doing well, and hopefully when I come back to Liverpool it will impact it.”My aim is to come back in the summer and try to make a footprint. I’m hoping I come back in the summer and impress the manager in pre-season.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
“The Government of Jamaica is well aware of the closely bound interaction between energy security and food security. Prime Minister, the Most Hon. Andrew Holness, says that for agriculture to maximise its full potential, high energy costs must be kept in check.“We cannot speak of transforming and modernising our agricultural sector without addressing how to alleviate those high energy costs,” he noted.“The Government of Jamaica is well aware of the closely bound interaction between energy security and food security.We are now developing an energy ecosystem that is diverse, environmentally sensitive and affordable,” he added.The Prime Minister was addressing the opening ceremony of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean on March 7 at the Montego Bay Convention Centre, St. James.He noted that the Government has a target to meet 30 per cent of the country’s energy needs through renewable sources by 2030, and “we are currently at 18 per cent and on track to achieve that 30 per cent”.He said that the Ministry of Science, Energy and Technology will also explore the utilisation of biofuels to further diversify the country’s energy sources.The Prime Minister argued that the possibilities for the agricultural sector greatly increase when electricity and other energy-related costs are less vulnerable to volatile oil prices.He argued that with diversified energy sources, small farmers and agro-processors, and others who are employed in the agricultural sector will benefit from reduced operational costs through the use of renewable energy.Such investment, he said, will serve to boost the agricultural sector, which he noted is important for rural development and economic growth.“This is significant, because as empirical data have shown, in Jamaica overall, economic growth is strongly positively correlated with the growth in the agricultural sector,” the Prime Minister said.“We are addressing the crucial nexus between energy and food security and finding solutions to secure both to put these two sectors in sync, which is a necessary component for sustainable development,” the Prime Minister added. Prime Minister, the Most Hon. Andrew Holness, says that for agriculture to maximise its full potential, high energy costs must be kept in check. Story Highlights He noted that the Government has a target to meet 30 per cent of the country’s energy needs through renewable sources by 2030, and “we are currently at 18 per cent and on track to achieve that 30 per cent”.
25Jul Rep. Hernandez highlights progress made on top priorities Categories: Hernandez News State Rep. Shane Hernandez of Port Huron today said he is pleased of the progress made so far this legislative session on the issues most important to the people of Sanilac and St. Clair counties, however he cautions that there is still much work left to do.“When I meet with residents in our district what I hear time and time again is that people want less government regulation and they want the government to live within its means,” Hernandez said. “Just like families across Michigan are tightening their belts, my goal as a member of the Appropriations Committee is to cut inefficient programs and eliminate waste in state government. I’m proud to say we have made significant progress in accomplishing that goal.”Hernandez noted that overall growth in spending for next year’s budget does not exceed the rate of inflation.“While the budget restricts the growth of government, we still managed to fund schools at the highest level in state history,” Hernandez said. “We also provided a record amount of funding to fix our state’s crumbling roads and bridges.”Hernandez also noted that he supported House Bill 4608, which eliminated an unnecessary government regulation requiring painters and decorators to obtain a license to work on residential properties in Michigan.“This is a pointless rule that hinders job growth and does nothing to protect the public,” the first-term representative said. “Eliminating this licensing requirement opens up more job opportunities for people with the talent to paint and decorate homes in Michigan.”Another priority, increasing government transparency, was addressed when the House voted in March to expand open record disclosure rules to the governor’s office at state legislators.“I hold a strong belief that residents deserve more transparency from their elected officials,” Hernandez said. “Michigan is one of a few states that still exempts its governor, lieutenant governor and the Legislature from sunshine laws. It’s time we remove these exemptions and help improve government accountability.”While the House has accomplished many goals in the first six months of the 2017-18 legislative session, Hernandez said he continues to work hard on behalf of people in Sanilac and St. Clair counties.“We’ve come a long way, but there are still a lot of issues that we can address to continue to improve the quality of life for Michigan families,” Hernandez said. “I encourage residents to contact my office if they have any ideas or concerns they would like to discuss.”Rep. Hernandez’s office can be reached by calling (517) 373-0835 or emailing [email protected]###