The Colorado Plateau is a huge region covering parts of four states. It’s over a mile higher than its surroundings, but its layers are remarkably flat. How did this region, littered with marine fossils, rise into the sky? Three American scientists writing in Nature last week believe they have a mechanism:1 it heated from underneath and rose like a cake. Explaining a vast heterogeneous region like the Colorado Plateau is tricky. The plateau includes the Grand Canyon and the other amazing landforms of the Four Corners Region – Bryce Canyon, Zion, Canyonlands, Arches, Capitol Reef, Grand Staircase, Lake Powell, Petrified Forest, Dinosaur, and numerous other local parks. There are mountain ranges, sediment layers miles deep, meandering river gorges, faults, volcanoes and areas where strata have been tilted 90° laterally for many miles. Moreover, this plateau sits within the middle of a tectonic plate. It’s not at the margins where most of the dramatic geological changes on earth takes place. “The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate,” they acknowledged. This vast area in Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona “experienced ~2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation.” That fact is clearly evident at the lookouts of the Grand Canyon. Geological layers extend as flat as a pancake as far as the eye can see. It takes a lot of delicately-balanced force to lift up a region this large without deforming it. Imagine how you would you try to pick up a Guinness World Record layer cake the size of a city block and keep it from breaking.2 To try to get a grip on complex systems, scientists employ models. These allow them to focus on certain aspects they deem important without getting bogged down in details. The danger is that different scientists may disagree on the salient features needing to be explained. In addition, uncooperative details cannot be ignored; they might falsify the model. Roy, Jordan and Pederson began by pointing out flaws in previous models. Note: the “Laramide orogeny” is a mountain-building episode that supposedly built the Rockies and other mountain ranges from Alaska to Mexico. It is presumed to have occurred in the mid-Cenozoic between 80 and 35 million years ago. Isostasy refers to the floating of crust on mantle; epeirogeny means large-scale crustal deformation. The Basin and Range province includes the parallel mountain ranges and valleys of Nevada to the west. The Cenozoic era follows the Cretaceous and is typically dated 65 million years ago to the present.Previous ideas for Colorado Plateau rock and/or surface uplift fall into four categories: early- to mid-Cenozoic Laramide-orogeny-related shortening; mid- to late-Cenozoic epeirogeny; stream incision, and isostatic responses; and dynamic uplift. Here we show that even if the contributions from minor Laramide deformation and flexural isostatic responses to extension at the plateau margins and to net Cenozoic erosion are removed, there is >1.6 km of residual rock uplift that must be explained by post-Laramide tectonic processes. Dynamic uplift mechanisms can drive only 400�500 m of this residual amount, leaving approx 1.2 km of unexplained rock uplift.Then they introduced their model:We propose thermal perturbation and re-equilibration as a general mechanism for driving rock uplift within plate interiors, particularly in regions of thicker, more depleted lithosphere adjacent to zones of extension, such as the Colorado Plateau. Our model differs from previous ideas of thermal modification of the Colorado Plateau in that it relies on a post-Laramide process that is triggered by the removal of the Farallon slab and the onset of thinning in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift provinces. We show that thermal perturbation following mid-Tertiary removal of the Farallon slab can account for the majority of the observed rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and, additionally, that this mechanism explains the observed rates of encroachment of the onset of Cenozoic magmatism onto the plateau.The bulk of their paper explained the details of their model. It is important to realize that no model of a historical episode can be proven, or even adequately tested. At best, scientists can try to find data consistent with it, and see if the overall scenario explains the bulk properties of the system. A good model should also make predictions.3 These scientists felt that by having a slab of rock slide away under the plateau, leading to increased heating from the mantle, they could explain the 2 km rise. A model is never the final answer, however. “Future, more detailed, comparisons with phase relationships in a melting model must incorporate variable chemistry and hydration of source regions and changes in both chemical and thermal buoyancy during and following the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up,” they said. They did not return to the observation that the layers are flat and largely undeformed.1. Roy, Jordan and Pederson, “Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere,” Nature 459, 978-982 (18 June 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature08052.2. Note also that this is just the latest uplift. Geologists believe this vast area rose and sank several times without significant deformation. In the Grand Canyon, for instance, the Hermit formation (marine) is very flat along the Bright Angel Trail. But the Coconino Sandstone, supposedly consisting of petrified sand dunes from a desert, sits just as flat on top of it. Above those, the Kaibab and Toroweap limestones sit as testaments to another undersea episode. Thousands of feet of more layers from alternating wet and dry periods are above those. It stretches credulity to think that these layers bobbed up and down repeatedly without deforming.3. The fallacy of “affirming the consequent” renders many predictions dubious: “p predicts q; q occurs; therefore p caused q.” Just because a prediction is confirmed, it does not guarantee that no other model could account for it. In fact, there could be an infinite number of other theories that could account for the phenomenon. This is what caused Karl Popper to jettison prediction as a criterion of science and propose falsification instead (but falsification only lasted a couple of decades before other philosophers discounted its value in science).One of the things CEH wishes to educate its readers on is how to be a good skeptic. Laypeople tend to exalt anything published in a scientific paper as something to honor just because it is found in a scientific journal. You wouldn’t give a politician unqualified honor, so don’t give it to a scientist. He needs to prove his case. Learn to be bold. Examine, test, reason, and question. Even if you don’t understand all the jargon, you can learn to discern baloney and flawed reasoning. Skeptics will find many reasons to doubt this model. For one, it is married to the geologic column and evolutionary timescale. This forced them to tie phenomena to an artificial system rather than let the data speak for themselves. They could not dare to stray outside the paradigm. Getting something to fit within a paradigm, however, is not the same thing as explaining it in the real world. Another problem is that they employed question-begging terms masquerading as scientific explanations. For instance, look at the term orogeny (mountain-creating). What made the Rocky Mountains? Answer: the Laramide Orogeny. This is equivalent to answering a child’s question about why a ball falls by saying “because of gravity.” What’s gravity?, the child asks. Answer: A force that makes balls fall. Should the kid be satisfied to learn that the ball falls because it falls, or mountains form because mountain-building forces formed them? But that is how a previous model explained it: the plateau lifted up dynamically because of “dynamic uplift.” Even a kid would know that’s a dodge. Giving it a proper name like Laramide doesn’t help. Example: What ancient people built this cliff dwelling? Answer: the Anasazi. Well, since the word Anasazi means “ancient ones,” the answer provides no information, even though it sounds sophisticated. Another cause for skepticism is the ad hoc nature of the model. The scientists imagined a plate slipping under the middle of another plate, that caused heating, and then the whole region rose 2 kilometers. How convenient. Have they really explained it, or did they just make up a story to get their model to work? Another ad hoc speculation not mentioned in this paper but stated in many Grand Canyon guidebooks is that huge time periods are missing between the layers. The entire Ordovician and Silurian systems are not found in Grand Canyon, for example. You can take one step on the Bright Angel Trail between conformable layers and they will tell you that you just stepped across 100 million years of “missing” geological time. What? The explanation does not rely on empirical evidence, but on the absence of evidence! There are several places where strata are missing. Almost a billion years is missing between the Great Unconformity and the overlying Tapeats Sandstone. No evidence for the erosion that would be expected over such vast periods of time can be found. Perhaps the biggest cause for skepticism, though, is the ignoring of important details of the Colorado Plateau that would falsify the theory (see Glittering Generalities). Their model explained nothing about the lack of deformation. How could these layers be lifted up 2 kilometers without buckling? Many strata in the Grand Canyon cover hundreds of square miles – some of them, indeed, extend across much of North America. This is comparable to a sheet of paper several miles in extent being lifted up without tearing or tilting. Explaining how these layers could rise and fall over and over without deforming is arguably more important than explaining how they rose at all. Isn’t that the question they should be asking? In addition, the lack of erosion between many of the layers should falsify the belief that they were laid down over millions of years. And the fact that faults and folds extend through all the layers, but don’t stop halfway up, makes the hypothesis of vast time periods implausible. Numerous other evidences indicate that the strata in the Colorado Plateau must have been laid down rapidly and catastrophically, but these were all completely ignored in their effort to present a model that comports with the secular evolutionary paradigm, only because Charlie & Charlie (Darwin and Lyell) needed lots of time for their slow, gradual processes to build scientists out of slime. When reading details of a scientific paper, don’t lose sight of the belief system that generates the explanation. This explanation was restricted to the secular evolutionary paradigm. It has no necessary correlation, therefore, to the true history of the world. Moreover, it did not honestly deal with the alternatives and with many falsifying details. It ignored voices of anyone outside the paradigm. Jargon or not, math or not, such self-fulfilling, paradigm-preserving projects should not be honored with the noble name of science.(Visited 28 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Johannesburg, Saturday 19 September 2015 – Brand South Africa today joins the nation in wishing the Springboks well ahead of their first game against Japan in the 2015 Rugby World Cup.Speaking from Johannesburg CEO Mr Kingsley Makhubela said, “The South African nation today stands behind the national rugby team ahead of their first encounter in the 2015 Rugby World Cup.”“We look forward to the South African flag flying high in Eastbourne, England when South Africa meets Japan on the field.”“Team South Africa invites all supporters to the fan parks and mini-Ekhaya venues which will be set up in the cities in which the Springboks are playing their matches during the tournament. Let’s get behind the Boks and support them with pride, passion and patriotism,” concluded Mr Makhubela.Supporters can join Team South Africa as follows:CityVenueBirminghamDuke of Norfolk Pub113-114 Western Road, Brighton and HoveEast Sussex, BN1 2ABBirminghamThe Rose Villa Tavern172 Warstone LaneBirmingham, B18 6JWNewcastleThe Black Bull PubBarrack Road, Newcastle Upon TyneNewcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and WearNE4 6BBLondonThe Slug, 7 Hartfield Road, WimbledonLondon, SW19 3TALondonGJ’s, 89 Garret Ln, London, WandsworthSW18 4DWFollow the conversation on #RWC2015 or #Springboks
Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedA Geocaching Return From Space After 75,000,000 MilesMay 13, 2014In “Geocaching Quizzes”Geocaching in Space Event CenterOctober 7, 2013In “Community”800+ Events Celebrate Geocaching Launch into SpaceOctober 21, 2013In “Community” [Click for information on the Seattle Geocaching in Space Event]You don’t read the words, “We’re going to space!” very often. So, how about we soak up the joy of reading those words once more? Let’s add a little pizzazz and shout it by using all capital letters: “WE’RE GOING TO SPACE!” Yeah! A Geocaching Travel Bug® is hitching a ride with astronaut Rick Mastracchio straight to the International Space Station. The mission is currently scheduled to launch from Kazakhstan at 4:08 GMT on November 7, which is 5:08 a.m. in Berlin and November 6 at 8:08 p.m. in Los Angeles. (Convert to your time here.)Astronaut Richard Mastracchio (Source: Nasa)Rick will live aboard the ISS for 6 months. He plans to use the Travel Bug as a tool to teach students on Earth, in his home state of Connecticut, about geography and science. He’ll also earn the Solar System’s most elusive smiley and find the International Space Station geocache.We’ll be following Rick the whole way, beginning at liftoff. Ready for some more pizzazz? Geocaching HQ will issue a Geocaching in Space souvenir to those who attend Event Caches during the launch. You can watch the launch live online or check out the recording later and celebrate the geocaching community’s spirit of exploration.Find out answers to frequently asked questions and everything you need to know about hosting a Geocaching in Space event at the Geocaching in Space Event Center. We’ll be updating this blog post with the latest information about the launch as it happens. All Event Caches must be submitted at least two weeks before the scheduled launch date of November 6. For more information on Geocaching in Space and Rick’s mission, visit the Geocaching in Space FAQ.Check out this vintage Geocaching video of the first Travel Bug journey to space.
The Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) has declined to transport four elephants from eastern Assam’s Tinsukia to Ahmedabad for the July 4 Jagannath Rath Yatra until the Gauhati High Court resolves the matter and the State Forest Department clarifies an order of the Supreme Court regarding transfer of elephants.Assam-based animal rights activists Urmi Mala Das and Nandini Baruah had on Friday filed a public interest litigation at the high court challenging the Assam government’s decision to transport four juvenile elephants, two of them females, in railway wagons to Ahmedabad. Their PIL followed a petition filed via email to the court by Canada-based activist Sangeeta Iyer.PIL filed“We will not dispatch the elephants unless we receive a clarification sought from the Forest Division on an order by the Supreme Court. Besides, there is a PIL to watch out for,” said Masood Alom, the Additional Divisional Railway Manager of NFR’s Tinsukia Division. Hearing a case related to Kerala, the SC had in May 2016 said: “The state government shall not issue any ownership certificate to any of the persons in possession of elephants. That apart, the persons who are in possession of elephants shall not transfer the elephants outside the state nor shall they part with the elephants by way of transfer in any manner…” Officials of NRF’s zonal headquarters in Guwahati’s Maligaon confirmed the decision not to transport the elephants until the legal issues are resolved. They also trashed reports that the elephants were being dispatched quietly before the PIL is heard on Monday.
Liverpool loanee Kane signs new extensionby Freddie Taylor10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool have penned Herbie Kane to a new contract and extended his loan spell with Doncaster Rovers.The 20-year-old midfielder has starred for League One side Rovers this season, scoring six goals from 26 appearances.”It is massive, coming from a massive club like Liverpool, so I’m happy,” Kane said after signing the new deal.”I was excited to get it done. It took a lot of hard work to get this, but thankfully it is done. Hopefully I can carry on working hard and get to where I want to be.”On his spell with Donny, he added: “I’ve enjoyed every minute of it, to be honest, I’m just trying to do as well as I can for myself and help the team, but also trying to improve.”Hopefully people at Liverpool notice that I’m doing well, and hopefully when I come back to Liverpool it will impact it.”My aim is to come back in the summer and try to make a footprint. I’m hoping I come back in the summer and impress the manager in pre-season.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
zoomIllustration. Image Courtesy: Pixabay under CC0 Creative Commons license The Export-Import Bank of China (Exim Bank) is to provide USD 94 million in financing for Navibulgar’s six bulk carrier newbuildings. On July 6, representatives of the bank and Bulgarian shipowner Navigation Maritime Bulgare (Navibulgar) signed an agreement for the financing, the Export-Import Bank of China said in a statement.Last year, Navibulgar ordered 4+2 Bluetech 45 Handymax bulkers from Chinese Jiangsu Yangzijiang Shipbuilding Group. Slated for delivery in 2019 and 2020, the 45,000 dwt ships will have a length of 190 meters, a draught of 10.8 meters, an ice class 1C and a large hold volume for its class.Market value of each 57,750 cbm newbuilding is around USD 17 million, according to data provided by VesselsValue.Operating in the Black Sea region, Navibulgar has a fleet of more than 30 bulk carriers. In addition, the company is expected to take delivery of two 42,300 dwt bulkers this year. The ships, Rojen and Musala, are being built at Chinese Jiangsu Hongqiang yard.The Export-Import Bank of China said that the signing of the agreement came in an effort to promote China’s Belt and Road Initiative. China hopes to drive its ship exports and attract more European shipowners to order new ships at the country’s shipyards.World Maritime News Staff
Nearly a month removed from his withdrawal from the Players Championship, Tiger Woods and all the drama that surrounds him return to competition today at the Memorial Tournament.Maintaining the No. 1 spot atop the World Golf Rankings for the last five years, there is never a lack of public intrigue surrounding Tiger Woods.With his recent neck injury and issues with his personal life, however, the 14-time major champion has drawn even more headlines than usual in the last six months. It has been a rocky road for Woods dating back to his Nov. 27 car accident. From the admittance of his adulterous ways to his pending divorce, Tiger’s life off the course was a mess.Professionally, things started looking up for Woods following a strong showing at Augusta National in which he finished tied for fourth. Tiger’s moment of light was short lived. After missing the cut at the Quail Hollow Championship, Woods couldn’t even finish the following week at the Players Championship, withdrawing on the seventh hole during Sunday’s final round due to a sore neck. Resting and rehabbing his neck since the Players, Tiger is back at the Memorial trying to right the ship once again. “I think that life is moving forward … the last six months have been pretty tough, and I’m now starting to get into golf and starting to play golf again,” he said.Being the defending Memorial champion and having the most all-time wins of any player at Jack Nicklaus’ tournament, this week seems as good as any for Tiger to get back at it.“I’ve always had good memories here,” Woods said. “It’s nice to come back to a golf course when obviously I haven’t played a whole lot this year, but it’s nice to come back to a venue where I have played well.”While Muirfield has treated him well, it remains to be seen whether Woods’ game is back to the form that golf fans are accustomed to, especially considering his recent break-up with longtime swing coach Hank Haney.“I’ve hit the ball much better,” Woods said. “It’s just like anything, though. It’s great to hit it at home, but I need to bring it out here.” For the time being, Tiger is using video to analyze his own swing and says as of now he has no plans for hiring a new coach.Even with the recent neck injury and mediocre play of late, Tiger’s competitors know not to count him out this week.“Anytime Tiger is in the field, you know you are going to have to be on top of your game to win,” said 2009 U.S. Open champion Lucas Glover.For many, after playing just nine competitive rounds all season, simply making the cut would be a victory in and of itself, but for Tiger Woods nothing is out of the realm of possibilities. “I never like to assume what he can and can’t do because he proves us all wrong all the time,” said Aussie golfer Adam Scott. Woods will take to the course at 12:44 p.m. today to begin his first round of play alongside Steve Stricker and Jason Bohn.
FIFA have handed the Mexico Football Federation a $10,400 fine for “discriminatory and insulting chants” in the national side’s World Cup opener against GermanyThe football governing body’s disciplinary committee sanctioned Mexico on Wednesday with a fine of 10,000 Swiss francs ($10.4k U.S.) for the chants that were aimed at Germany captain and goalkeeper Manuel Neuer.“The FIFA Disciplinary Committee has sanctioned the Mexican Football Federation (FMF) with a fine of CHF 10,000 for the misconduct of a group of Mexican fans (cf. art. 67 of the FIFA Disciplinary Code) in relation to discriminatory and insulting chants during the first half of the 2018 FIFA World Cup match played between Germany and Mexico,” FIFA wrote, via ESPN.This is not the first time such the Mexican Football Federation have had to deal with such allegations after having been penalised 12 times by FIFA over anti-gay chants during their qualifying campaign for the World Cup.They have also received official warnings for the first two offences and were later handed another 10 fines.Top 5 Bundesliga players to watch during the weekend Tomás Pavel Ibarra Meda – September 11, 2019 With the international activity cooling down for the next month, we go back to the Bundesliga’s Top 5 players to watch next weekend.The German…The football governing body have been taking strong actions against such offences ever since the chants that the Mexico supporters made in the 2014 World Cup – which they were unpunished for.“The decision was passed after a thorough assessment of the relevant match reports, the FMF’s precedents and the evidence provided, which included videos of the incidents as well as examples of certain sustainable actions taken by the FMF to raise awareness among its supporters,” FIFA said. “Moreover, the Disciplinary Committee gave a warning to the FMF, who may face additional sanctions in case of repeated infringements of this type.”Fellow South American sides Argentina and Chile have also been sanctioned in the past by FIFA for similar offences.Recently Mexico striker Javier Hernandez and Eintracht Frankfurt midfielder Marco Fabian pleaded with the supporters to put an end to the chants on social media.
Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享Governor Mike Dunleavy signed a reduced final capital budget by $34.7 M through his line-item veto authority into law on Thursday. In a release from the office of the governor, SB2002, as passed by the Alaska Legislature, included a number of projects of local, community or legislative interest that the state simply cannot fund under its limited financial resources. Dunleavy’s office said the remaining capital budget, signed Thursday, captures nearly $1 billion in federal dollars and funds sweeping crime legislation. Governor Dunleavy: “In the coming days and weeks, my administration will be making more decisions that will impact Alaskans – but our commitment remains to be open to input from Alaskans, to understand their priorities, and to work towards achieving better outcomes for the dollars we do spend. While Alaskans await future announcements regarding the operating budget, we can’t ignore the fact that today’s action represents an important and positive step in moving Alaska forward.” Click here for additional on the enacted Fiscal Year 2020 capital budget, including a funded project summary, a vetoed project summary and more. Key items funded in SB 2002: $73M to Federal Highway and Aviation Match, which secures $877.2 million in Federal funds$12M to Village Safe Water and Wastewater Projects, securing over $52M in Federal funds$2.54M to Hiland Mountain Women’s Mental Health Unit$2M in AIDEA receipts for Northwest Arctic Borough school construction and major maintenance$680,200 to Electronic Visit Verification System$2.5M to Arctic Strategic Transportation and Resources$1.5M to AHFC Rental Assistance for Victims- Empowering Choice Housing Program$3.6M to AHFC Homeless Assistance$1.75M to AHFC Senior Citizen Housing$250,000 to Inter-Island Ferry Authority$13.5M to Alaska Marine Highway System vessel overhaul, annual certification, and shoreside facilities rehabilitation$1.6M to Harbor Grant Program