Lenski and Adami are at it again (see 05/08/2003 headline), attempting to demonstrate Darwinian evolution in the computer with “digital organisms” which they describe as ”domesticated computer viruses” Their digital organisms are small computer programs with logic functions that can reproduce and respond to mutations. They reward the ones that evolve with more resources (CPU time and memory). Last time, the rewards were constant. “In this study,” by contrast, “we used a configuration in which the reward obtained by a particular organism for performing any logic function declines with consumption of the reward by other organisms.” Presumably that stimulates what Darwinists term “adaptive radiation,” or rapid speciation when organisms invade a heterogeneous new environment. The motivation for this new study was to troubleshoot a Darwinian anomaly: “The explanation for differences in species richness among habitats has been called ’perhaps the greatest unsolved ecological riddle.’” Assuming that productivity (defined as resource inflow to the system) has the greatest effect on species richness, they ran their simulations to reward productivity and found:In experiments with evolving digital organisms and populations of fixed size, maximum species richness emerges at intermediate productivity, even in a spatially homogeneous environment, owing to frequency-dependent selection to exploit an influx of mixed resources. A diverse pool of limiting resources is sufficient to cause adaptive radiation, which is manifest by the origin and maintenance of phenotypically and phylogenetically distinct groups of organisms.What is a “species” in cyberspace, by the way? “As our operational definition of species, we use clusters of organisms that all have small phylogenetic distances from one another. The phylogenetic distance between two organisms is defined as the total number of intermediate organisms (having different genotypes from their parents) along the lines of descent leading to their most recent common ancestor.”1Chow, Wilkie, Ofria, Richard E. Lenski and Christoph Adami, “Adaptive Radiation from Resource Competition in Digital Organisms,” Science, Vol 305, Issue 5680, 84-86, 2 July 2004, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1096307].Same fallacies (see 05/08/2003 and 05/24/2004 headlines), same irrelevancies, same verdict: dumb (repeat 5x to the tune of Dragnet). This is not Darwinian evolution, it is (marginally) intelligent design. Talk about dysteleology; a Panda’s thumb is more sensible than these arbitrary “adaptations”. They need to read the Dec 4 issue of Nature (see 12/03/2003 headline) before assuming adaptive radiation is real, otherwise their project was nothing more than a rigged demonstration of a fantasy. As with most unsolved riddles, the answer is often obvious, but where you least expect it. Any guesses?(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
How did bats evolve the ability to fly? Evolution helped them out by providing them with higher energy. After all, “Flight is among the most energy-consuming activities” in the animal kingdom, said a team of Chinese and Canadian scientists reporting in PNAS,1 so it’s obvious that evolution must have provided the genes to get the job done. So they looked at the genes of bats compared to other mammals, and sure enough, they found evidence of natural selection at work. “Both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded OXPHOS [oxidative phosphorylation, a process of metabolism] genes display evidence of adaptive evolution along the common ancestral branch of bats, supporting our hypothesis that genes involved in energy metabolism were targets of natural selection and allowed adaptation to the huge change in energy demand that were required during the origin of flight.” The team looked into the mitochondrial genes and nuclear genes of the two bats whose draft genomes have been published, and compared the genes for metabolism with several other mammals. They came up with statistics that indicated a 25% signature of “positive selection” in the mitochondrial genes and close to 5% for the nuclear genes (they claimed that “Positive selection and gene duplication are two major mechanisms of adaptive evolution”). They acknowledged, though, that identifying positive selection is tricky business:2 Typically, positive selection will act on only a few sites and for a short period of evolutionary time; thus the signal for positive selection usually is swamped by the continuous negative selection that occurs on most sites in a gene sequence. Even after a short period of positive selection, this is commonly followed by a long period of purifying selection, which would obscure the selective processes. These processes explain why it has been so difficult to detect positive selection in mtDNA, despite extensive studies.Nevertheless, they defended several independent tests, such as branch-site models, to try to weed out and distinguish other signals, and thus support their identification of positive selection. Now surely, they must realize there has to be more to it than that, right? Well, but of course. Their paper ends with this paragraph:Bats are unique in being the only mammals capable of powered flapping flight. As in birds, bat flight is a highly energetically expensive form of locomotion. However, it is also a very efficient mode of transport and assists flyers in feeding and breeding as well as avoidance of predators. The evolution of flight in bats was a major factor leading to the success of this amazing group of mammals, although the evolution of this ability has required complex changes in the anatomy of these animals. In addition to other important factors, such as changes in bone density and development of the wings, bat flight also requires a significantly higher metabolic rate, a rate well above the maximum capable by other similar-sized terrestrial mammals during exercise. Aerobic metabolism by mitochondria plays a vital role as the energy production centers of cells The OXPHOS pathway of mitochondria has adaptively evolved to meet the demands of changing environmental and physiological conditions. Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain has a dual genetic foundation (mitochondria and nuclear genomes), here we examined both genomes to obtain insights into the evolution of flight by mammals. Both mitochondrial genes and nuclear-encoded OXPHOS genes showed greater evidence for adaptive evolution; this result supports our hypothesis that energy metabolism genes were targets of natural selection that included a balancing cytonuclear coevolutionary constraint, which allowed adaptive changes in energy demands and thus played a crucial role in attainment of flight by bats.1. Yong-Yi Shen, Lu Liang, Zhou-Hai Zhu, Wei-Ping Zhou, David M. Irwin, and Ya-Ping Zhang, “Adaptive evolution of energy metabolism genes and the origin of flight in bats,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published online before print April 26, 2010, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912613107.2. For more on the pitfalls of measuring positive selection, or tying it to adaptive fitness, see 09/05/2008, 01/13/2010 bullet 6, and 02/17/2010 bullet 4.We will have to call this the Mighty Mouse theory of bat evolution. It’s about as credible as the character who always managed to fly in for the rescue at the last moment (Wikipedia), and about as cartoony, too. Papers like this are another reason we really, really need to end the one-party rule in science. The Darwin Party is so corrupt, its members have convinced themselves that this kind of research constitutes evidence for evolution. Undoubtedly, the leaders of the regime will stack this paper on top of their growing pile of propaganda to intimidate doubters by showing them the mounds of scientific evidence supporting Darwin’s theory. But this paper makes no sense at all unless one already is a member of the Darwin Party, has pledged allegiance to Darwin, and already vowed to interpret everything in the light of common descent by random mutations and natural selection. Then the reasoning is deductive: since we already know as axiomatic truth that bats evolved from rodents, then “this result supports our hypothesis that energy metabolism genes were targets of natural selection that included a balancing cytonuclear coevolutionary constraint, which allowed adaptive changes in energy demands and thus played a crucial role in attainment of flight by bats.” The fogma is so thick they can’t see it. Only those outside of it can see what is going on. Simply put, adding energy to a mouse will not make it fly. Adding piecemeal goals to a Darwinian story will not make Darwinian theory fly, either. Darwinians need to think consistently with their theory. They cannot look in retrospect and say, Because bat flight evolved, this or that modification must have contributed to the overall complex trait. Bat flight is a package deal. As fossils have shown, bats appear abruptly in the record fully capable of flight and probably capable of sonar. More importantly, there is no “target of selection” in terms of an overall complex trait. Think of a cow. What will it take to help Bessie evolve flight? Well, a high metabolism will surely be among the requirements. So let’s say that Tinker Bell comes along with her mutation wand and starts zapping poor Bessie in the gonads. Among the calves that don’t die as embryos, maybe there will be one some day that survives with a slightly higher metabolic rate. Are we getting warmer? Are we on the way to evolving flight in Bessie’s descendents? It’s not necessary to press the point to see how absurd this tale is already, and we haven’t even tried to talk Bessie into the advantages of how nice it will be for her descendents with wings some golden day, millions of years from now, to be able to efficiently escape their human predators that are trying to hunt them down for hamburger. (Don’t tell her that the human predators by then will have co-evolved into fearsome fighters flying at Mach 2.) Darwin’s theory demands that every beneficial mutation confer survival advantage right now, not millions of years in the future. It has no goals, no targets, no visions, no plans. A mouse in its hole has no desire to sprout wings and become a bat, no matter how nice it might be for feeding, breeding, and avoidance of predators. Once again, we see how the Darwin supernaturalists conceal their miracles with misdirection and euphemisms. Everyone believes in miracles, you realize; and everyone is a supernaturalist. Darwinists only pretend to be naturalists. Their slip is showing every time they use logic and reason, which are not made of particles and forces. Look for the miracle-talk in this sentence: “The evolution of flight in bats was a major factor leading to the success of this amazing group of mammals, although the evolution of this ability has required complex changes in the anatomy of these animals.” OK, students, barrage the teacher with your questions. But teacher, how did this evolution occur? How can a Darwinian process be factored? – that sounds like algebra, a form of intelligent design. What do you mean by success – survival? The mice seemed to be pretty successful, because they still survive today and are more numerous than bats. How did the complex changes in the anatomy of bats occur simultaneously with the metabolic changes? How were they coordinated and tuned? You talked about changes in bone density and “the development of wings” – Wow! Isn’t that a giant leap for batkind? Didn’t Darwin say that nature takes no giant leaps, but only slight, successive modifications? What were the modifications, and how did they confer survival value? What do you mean by a “target” of natural selection? That sounds like anthropomorphism. Who will ask these and other questions, if not creationists, the intelligent design movement, or at least critics of neo-Darwinism? Scientists need critics to keep them in line. When it comes to Darwinism, though, the whole regime is corrupt. Don’t look for critical thinking from the NAS, the NIH, NASA, the NSF, or the major secular journals. The news media aren’t holding them accountable, either (02/18/2010), except for independent sources like CEH. Many individual scientists have their heads on straight but those who try to buck the establishment risk marginalization or expulsion. Totalitarian regimes typically become so corrupt that they become caricatures of themselves – fodder for political cartoons. That is certainly the case with the Darwin Party today. The rank and file largely ignore the ideology. They go along with it and repeat the party line on cue to stay out of trouble. No one dares speak out against it, even though an elementary course in baloney detecting could expose its nonsensical fables. The folly of theory-incestuous papers like this one shows that a thorough housecleaning is long overdue. Open the castle doors, DODO* bigots, and answer the challenge! Your mental health depends on lively and open debate. Listen to your founder: “A fair result can be obtained only by fully stating and balancing the facts and arguments on both sides of each question” – Charles Darwin.(Visited 65 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
A Bharatiya Janata Party MP has joined the chorus for death sentence to rapists “even if he is one of ours” as more cases of sexual assault were reported across Assam and Meghalaya.“The guilty should be publicly hanged or shot dead. There should be no leniency with rapists, juvenile or adult. Even if the guilty is found to be a BJP member, he should be executed publicly,” R.P. Sharma, Lok Sabha member representing Tezpur parliamentary constituency, said on Thursday.Mr. Sharma, a lawyer by profession, has often embarrassed the BJP with his outspokenness. In October last year, he had accused some ministers of denting the party image by taking bribes and 10% commission for various work.The MP’s outburst followed the arrest of a 60-year-old man in Meghalaya’s North Garo Hills district for raping his seven-year-old granddaughter. The accused, Deny Marak of Kharkutta area, had reportedly committed the crime on April 10 and used threats to silence the child.On Wednesday, the police in western Assam’s Dhubri town arrested one Nurjamal Haque for sexually assaulting a teenage girl while she was alone in a house where works as a maid.In the last 24 hours, the police in Guwahati arrested two men for sexually exploiting girls through blackmailing. Cases had been registered against the two in the city’s Chandmari Police Station.While one of the accused, Anjan Kalita, had been blackmailing a girl in the city’s Gandhibasti area, the other – a security guard named Rabindra Phukan – had been exploiting a resident of an apartment in Chenikuthi area.
Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion MANILA, Philippines—San Miguel head coach Leo Austria made it clear that even with his caliber, Terrence Romeo still has to prove himself when he officially joins the Beermen.ADVERTISEMENT PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss LATEST STORIES BREAKING: Corrections officer shot dead in front of Bilibid June Mar Fajardo sad to see Brian Heruela go, but hopes pal gets longer minutes at TNT LOOK: Joyce Pring goes public with engagement to Juancho Triviño SEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion Is Luis Manzano planning to propose to Jessy Mendiola? Austria is also aware of Romeo’s reputation for being a problematic player.In a report by Philippine Daily Inquirer’s Musong Castillo, Romeo was shipped out of TNT at the request of several players after the star guard “ruined” the team’s chemistry, according to sources.A couple of Beermen also had run-ins with Romeo on the court in the past season.But Austria remains positive that these issues will be resolved once Romeo starts practicing with the team on Thursday.Austria did fix San Miguel after its tumultuous “Petronovela” phase when the team had to change its coaches several times and won just one championship in a span of three years.ADVERTISEMENT “Ever since Petron there was the novella and there were a lot of intrigues within the team but still the players stayed together and because of that in the last four years we started winning championships,” said Austria who took over as head coach at the start of the 2014-15 season.“There were a lot of ups and downs and the players matured because of that. These guys are professionals and they should exercise your attitude because this is not any one’s team. Anyone of us can be let go any time, The loyalty should remain to the team.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next TS Kammuri to enter PAR possibly a day after SEA Games opening Austria is well aware of Romeo’s individual awards but as far as team trophies are concerned the polarizing gunner still has nothing to show for it.“He has a lot of achievements, individually, but as a team I think he hasn’t won a championship yet,” said Austria in Filipino after the team’s practice Wednesday at Acropolis Clubhouse. “That’s the first thing he has to do, and I think he wants to win a championship.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completion“Every time there are new players on the team, the incumbent ones will have to size him up and he too has to size his new teammates up. It will take a few days to be familiarized with the team.”San Miguel has been nothing short of successful during Austria’s reign winning six of the possible 12 titles across four seasons including four straight Philippine Cups. Hotel management clarifies SEAG footballers’ kikiam breakfast issue View comments
Further, Facebook lost its prominence by July 2012 as the top downloaded social app, falling to the third spot behind Instagram and Twitter (as measured across Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Korea, United Kingdom, and the U.S.).For the full report, click here. A new report conducted by app store analytics firm Distimo finds that the United States is the most “socially savvy” country by virtue of its download volume of social apps. According to Distimo, out of the most popular apps downloaded, 20 percent of the volume is apps from Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and the like. In countries in Europe and South East Asia, social app download volume doesn’t exceed 10 percent. These findings are part of a larger look at how social media app downloads compare to other apps. As an example, the report finds that while download volume among the 100 most popular apps in Apple’s App Store increased 43 percent over the last two years, the top 100 social applications increased 193 percent between July 2010 and July 2012.
AL general secretary Obaidul QuaderRuling Bangladesh Awami League (AL) general secretary Obaidul Quader has said a working committee meeting of the party would discuss both the letters of chief justice Surendra Kumar Sinha this evening, Saturday.“We need to discuss both the letters [leave letter and letter to newsmen]. We’ve invited the law minister, Anisul Huq, who unequivocally said the chief justice was sick and sought the leave on health grounds, to the meeting,” Quader told reporters after attending a reception programme at the Viqarunnisa Noon School and College in the capital. Also the road transport and bridges minister, Quader went on to say, “We will take a decision in this regard in today’s working committee meeting.”The AL working committee meeting will be held with prime minister and AL president Sheikh Hasina in the chair at Ganabhaban this evening.While leaving his Hare Road residence for the airport to catch an Australia-bound flight on Friday night, chief justice Surendra Kumar Sinha dismissed reports of his ill health saying he is “”completely in good health”.He also told newsmen that he was going abroad temporarily to save the judiciary from blemish and will return shortly for the “sake of the country’s judiciary”.In the letter handed out to waiting newsmen at the main entrance of his official residence, Sinha said that he is embarrassed at the criticism levelled at him by the prime minister, ministers, and political leadership over a verdict.Earlier on 2 October, law and parliamentary affairs minister Anisul Huq claimed that chief justice Sinha applied for one month’s leave as he was suffering from different types of illness including cancer.Sinha along with his wife flew for Australia by a Singapore Airlines flight at 11:55pm Friday night. He left his residence around 10:00pm.
Kolkata: In a bid to fix minimum wages for tea workers in West Bengal, the state government is set to place a basic structure of it in the ensuing tripartite meeting, scheduled to be held on July 17, an official said on Friday. According to Zia-Ul-Alam, Convenor of Joint Forum of Trade Unions, an umbrella organisation of trade unions working in tea sector, and Citu’s General Secretary (tea industry), the state government along with stakeholders including representatives from workers’ unions and planters on Friday discussed about the component of the minimum wage at the Wage Advisory Committee’s meeting. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killed “The state labour department is likely to place a basic structure of minimum wage at the tripartite meeting to be held on July 17 and the government will likely to recommend the minimum wage by end of this month,” he said. Usually, wage agreement for tea workers is executed for a three-year period and the last agreement had expired on March, 31 2017. In fact, West Bengal government proposed an interim hike of Rs 17.50 to increase the remuneration from Rs 132.50 to Rs 150 with effect from January 1, 2018. Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJP State also introduced interim payment of compensation on account of savings on the procurement cost of foodgrains at the rate Rs 9 per day per worker from May 1, 2018. Unions had protested against the minuscule hike in the minimum wage as an interim wage. Meanwhile, a three-day strike has been called by the unions from July 23-25 demanding the implementation of minimum wage at the earliest.