2013 Photo Scavenger HuntThe Photo Scavenger Hunt is a fun, family-friendly, summer event organized by the City of Fort St John Visitor Centre. Through this popular events our community is given the opportunity to showcase their talent while exposing the beauty of our City as well as the North Peace region. The event encourages participants to venture out into the City and area as w […]FSJ Farmers’ MarketVisit the Fort St. John Farmers’ Market to sample a wide variety of locally grown, fresh & wholesome foods direct from the grower. Date: Every Saturday from May until December Time: 9-3pm Support your local farmers. Shop local! 9805 96th Avenue, Fort St. John (North Peace Arena Lobby) […]Drag Racing at Northern Lights RacewayCome see the loudest and fastest show in the Peace Region this weekend. Racers of all ages driving vehicles of all kind down the 1/4 mile strip at speeds up to 200mph! Admission is $10, with kids 12 and under admitted free. Racing begins around 11am. Dates: July 20 & 21 Aug 10 & 11 Aug 24 & 25 Our website is […]Doig River RodeoThe Dog River Rodeo will be held this year on July 20 and 21, 2013 from 1 PM- 8 PM. Tickets: Adults- $8 Children- $4 12 and under are FREE The Dog River is located 40km north on Rose Prairie Road off the 101 Road at the Doig River. For more information contact 250-793-8485 […]Garden Tour 2013The North Peace Horticultural Society in Fort St. John plan their annual Garden Tour for July 21, 2013 from 10:00AM until 4:00PM. Come out and enjoy some of the beautiful gardens of the North Peace! Tickets are available at the museum one week prior to the event and on the day of the event. July 21, 2013 For more information contact 250.789.3656 […]Drag Racing at Northern Lights RacewayCome see the loudest and fastest show in the Peace Region this weekend. Racers of all ages driving vehicles of all kind down the 1/4 mile strip at speeds up to 200mph! Admission is $10, with kids 12 and under admitted free. Racing begins around 11am. Dates: July 20 & 21 Aug 10 & 11 Aug 24 & 25 Our website is […]Doig River RodeoThe Dog River Rodeo will be held this year on July 20 and 21, 2013 from 1 PM- 8 PM. Tickets: Adults- $8 Children- $4 12 and under are FREE The Dog River is located 40km north on Rose Prairie Road off the 101 Road at the Doig River. For more information contact 250-793-8485 […] – Advertisement –
But in it, he gave away the Warriors’ gameplan for the first … Here’s what we’ve learned so far about the Warriors halfway through thee 2019-2020 preseason:The Warriors are going to be a fancy version of the Rockets(Doug Duran/Bay Area News Group)Stephen Curry played 26 minutes in Thursday’s preseason game against the sad, dumpy, Minnesota Timberwolves, scoring 40 points on 14-of-19 shooting, 6-of-9 from beyond the line.It was a really good performance from the two-time NBA MVP.
The Colorado Plateau is a huge region covering parts of four states. It’s over a mile higher than its surroundings, but its layers are remarkably flat. How did this region, littered with marine fossils, rise into the sky? Three American scientists writing in Nature last week believe they have a mechanism:1 it heated from underneath and rose like a cake. Explaining a vast heterogeneous region like the Colorado Plateau is tricky. The plateau includes the Grand Canyon and the other amazing landforms of the Four Corners Region – Bryce Canyon, Zion, Canyonlands, Arches, Capitol Reef, Grand Staircase, Lake Powell, Petrified Forest, Dinosaur, and numerous other local parks. There are mountain ranges, sediment layers miles deep, meandering river gorges, faults, volcanoes and areas where strata have been tilted 90° laterally for many miles. Moreover, this plateau sits within the middle of a tectonic plate. It’s not at the margins where most of the dramatic geological changes on earth takes place. “The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate,” they acknowledged. This vast area in Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona “experienced ~2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation.” That fact is clearly evident at the lookouts of the Grand Canyon. Geological layers extend as flat as a pancake as far as the eye can see. It takes a lot of delicately-balanced force to lift up a region this large without deforming it. Imagine how you would you try to pick up a Guinness World Record layer cake the size of a city block and keep it from breaking.2 To try to get a grip on complex systems, scientists employ models. These allow them to focus on certain aspects they deem important without getting bogged down in details. The danger is that different scientists may disagree on the salient features needing to be explained. In addition, uncooperative details cannot be ignored; they might falsify the model. Roy, Jordan and Pederson began by pointing out flaws in previous models. Note: the “Laramide orogeny” is a mountain-building episode that supposedly built the Rockies and other mountain ranges from Alaska to Mexico. It is presumed to have occurred in the mid-Cenozoic between 80 and 35 million years ago. Isostasy refers to the floating of crust on mantle; epeirogeny means large-scale crustal deformation. The Basin and Range province includes the parallel mountain ranges and valleys of Nevada to the west. The Cenozoic era follows the Cretaceous and is typically dated 65 million years ago to the present.Previous ideas for Colorado Plateau rock and/or surface uplift fall into four categories: early- to mid-Cenozoic Laramide-orogeny-related shortening; mid- to late-Cenozoic epeirogeny; stream incision, and isostatic responses; and dynamic uplift. Here we show that even if the contributions from minor Laramide deformation and flexural isostatic responses to extension at the plateau margins and to net Cenozoic erosion are removed, there is >1.6 km of residual rock uplift that must be explained by post-Laramide tectonic processes. Dynamic uplift mechanisms can drive only 400�500 m of this residual amount, leaving approx 1.2 km of unexplained rock uplift.Then they introduced their model:We propose thermal perturbation and re-equilibration as a general mechanism for driving rock uplift within plate interiors, particularly in regions of thicker, more depleted lithosphere adjacent to zones of extension, such as the Colorado Plateau. Our model differs from previous ideas of thermal modification of the Colorado Plateau in that it relies on a post-Laramide process that is triggered by the removal of the Farallon slab and the onset of thinning in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift provinces. We show that thermal perturbation following mid-Tertiary removal of the Farallon slab can account for the majority of the observed rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and, additionally, that this mechanism explains the observed rates of encroachment of the onset of Cenozoic magmatism onto the plateau.The bulk of their paper explained the details of their model. It is important to realize that no model of a historical episode can be proven, or even adequately tested. At best, scientists can try to find data consistent with it, and see if the overall scenario explains the bulk properties of the system. A good model should also make predictions.3 These scientists felt that by having a slab of rock slide away under the plateau, leading to increased heating from the mantle, they could explain the 2 km rise. A model is never the final answer, however. “Future, more detailed, comparisons with phase relationships in a melting model must incorporate variable chemistry and hydration of source regions and changes in both chemical and thermal buoyancy during and following the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flare-up,” they said. They did not return to the observation that the layers are flat and largely undeformed.1. Roy, Jordan and Pederson, “Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere,” Nature 459, 978-982 (18 June 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature08052.2. Note also that this is just the latest uplift. Geologists believe this vast area rose and sank several times without significant deformation. In the Grand Canyon, for instance, the Hermit formation (marine) is very flat along the Bright Angel Trail. But the Coconino Sandstone, supposedly consisting of petrified sand dunes from a desert, sits just as flat on top of it. Above those, the Kaibab and Toroweap limestones sit as testaments to another undersea episode. Thousands of feet of more layers from alternating wet and dry periods are above those. It stretches credulity to think that these layers bobbed up and down repeatedly without deforming.3. The fallacy of “affirming the consequent” renders many predictions dubious: “p predicts q; q occurs; therefore p caused q.” Just because a prediction is confirmed, it does not guarantee that no other model could account for it. In fact, there could be an infinite number of other theories that could account for the phenomenon. This is what caused Karl Popper to jettison prediction as a criterion of science and propose falsification instead (but falsification only lasted a couple of decades before other philosophers discounted its value in science).One of the things CEH wishes to educate its readers on is how to be a good skeptic. Laypeople tend to exalt anything published in a scientific paper as something to honor just because it is found in a scientific journal. You wouldn’t give a politician unqualified honor, so don’t give it to a scientist. He needs to prove his case. Learn to be bold. Examine, test, reason, and question. Even if you don’t understand all the jargon, you can learn to discern baloney and flawed reasoning. Skeptics will find many reasons to doubt this model. For one, it is married to the geologic column and evolutionary timescale. This forced them to tie phenomena to an artificial system rather than let the data speak for themselves. They could not dare to stray outside the paradigm. Getting something to fit within a paradigm, however, is not the same thing as explaining it in the real world. Another problem is that they employed question-begging terms masquerading as scientific explanations. For instance, look at the term orogeny (mountain-creating). What made the Rocky Mountains? Answer: the Laramide Orogeny. This is equivalent to answering a child’s question about why a ball falls by saying “because of gravity.” What’s gravity?, the child asks. Answer: A force that makes balls fall. Should the kid be satisfied to learn that the ball falls because it falls, or mountains form because mountain-building forces formed them? But that is how a previous model explained it: the plateau lifted up dynamically because of “dynamic uplift.” Even a kid would know that’s a dodge. Giving it a proper name like Laramide doesn’t help. Example: What ancient people built this cliff dwelling? Answer: the Anasazi. Well, since the word Anasazi means “ancient ones,” the answer provides no information, even though it sounds sophisticated. Another cause for skepticism is the ad hoc nature of the model. The scientists imagined a plate slipping under the middle of another plate, that caused heating, and then the whole region rose 2 kilometers. How convenient. Have they really explained it, or did they just make up a story to get their model to work? Another ad hoc speculation not mentioned in this paper but stated in many Grand Canyon guidebooks is that huge time periods are missing between the layers. The entire Ordovician and Silurian systems are not found in Grand Canyon, for example. You can take one step on the Bright Angel Trail between conformable layers and they will tell you that you just stepped across 100 million years of “missing” geological time. What? The explanation does not rely on empirical evidence, but on the absence of evidence! There are several places where strata are missing. Almost a billion years is missing between the Great Unconformity and the overlying Tapeats Sandstone. No evidence for the erosion that would be expected over such vast periods of time can be found. Perhaps the biggest cause for skepticism, though, is the ignoring of important details of the Colorado Plateau that would falsify the theory (see Glittering Generalities). Their model explained nothing about the lack of deformation. How could these layers be lifted up 2 kilometers without buckling? Many strata in the Grand Canyon cover hundreds of square miles – some of them, indeed, extend across much of North America. This is comparable to a sheet of paper several miles in extent being lifted up without tearing or tilting. Explaining how these layers could rise and fall over and over without deforming is arguably more important than explaining how they rose at all. Isn’t that the question they should be asking? In addition, the lack of erosion between many of the layers should falsify the belief that they were laid down over millions of years. And the fact that faults and folds extend through all the layers, but don’t stop halfway up, makes the hypothesis of vast time periods implausible. Numerous other evidences indicate that the strata in the Colorado Plateau must have been laid down rapidly and catastrophically, but these were all completely ignored in their effort to present a model that comports with the secular evolutionary paradigm, only because Charlie & Charlie (Darwin and Lyell) needed lots of time for their slow, gradual processes to build scientists out of slime. When reading details of a scientific paper, don’t lose sight of the belief system that generates the explanation. This explanation was restricted to the secular evolutionary paradigm. It has no necessary correlation, therefore, to the true history of the world. Moreover, it did not honestly deal with the alternatives and with many falsifying details. It ignored voices of anyone outside the paradigm. Jargon or not, math or not, such self-fulfilling, paradigm-preserving projects should not be honored with the noble name of science.(Visited 28 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Leisa Boley-Hellwarth, a dairy farmer and an attorney from CelinaTexans love to proclaim that everything is bigger in Texas. And some things truly are —their hair and their pickup trucks, the Texas Capitol (which is several inches taller than our nation’s), the bluebonnets and Indian paintbrush that bloom in the spring, their farms and ranches that are often measured in sections not acres, and the post office LBJ had built in his hometown, Johnson City. A recent case decided by the Texas Supreme Court on March 23, 2018, Annette Knopf and Stanley Gray v William Robert Gray, Karen Ann Gray, and Polasek Farms, LLC, No 17-0262, indicates that family disputes may be bigger in the Lone Star State as well.The trouble all started when Vada Wallace Allen wrote her own will. Chances are that Vada paid a mechanic to work on her vehicle, sought a dentist when she needed a filling, and would not have even considered replacing her own knee. But it bothers some people to hire a lawyer when all they do is write words on paper. So Vada took matters into her own hands and drafted a will that disposed of all of her assets, the biggest being a 316-acre ranch in Robertson County (East Central Texas).Here’s what she wrote:NOW BOBBY I leave the rest to you, everything, certificates of deposit, land, cattle and machinery, Understand the land is not to be sold but passed on down to your children, ANNETTE KNOPF, ALLISON KILWAY, AND STANLEY GRAY. TAKE CARE OF IT AND TRY TO BE HAPPY.Vada died on June 8, 1993, and her will was admitted to probate on November 11, 1993.What did her son do? At some point, Bobby and his wife sold the land to Polasek Farm, LLC. They conveyed the land in fee simple via multiple warranty deeds.What did the grandchildren do? I assume they got bowed up (Texan for very angry) and threw a hissy fit (Texan for outburst or tantrum). Then, the two who were living (Annette and Stanley) promptly sought legal counsel and filed suit, seeking a declaratory judgment that Vada devised only a life estate to Bobby, thus precluding him from delivering a greater interest to Polasek Farms.Fee simple is a permanent and absolute tenure of an estate in land with freedom to dispose of it at will. A life estate is ownership in real property that ends at death when ownership of the property reverts to the original owner or passes to another party.What did the language Vada used in her will create? Did her son receive a fee simple or a life estate? The trial court, the 82nd District Court of Robertson County, found for Bobby, as did a divided Court of Appeals of Texas, Tenth District. Both courts indicated the troubling language was merely a disabling restraint, which was void.The Texas Supreme Court, however, held that Vada’s language clearly created a life estate, when interpreted as a layperson would, absent evidence that the testator received legal assistance in drafting the will or was otherwise familiar with technical meanings. Furthermore, the Court held that her will as a whole indicates an intent to keep her property in her family and to bequeath certain property to multiple generations. This Court clearly followed the cardinal rule of will construction which is to ascertain the testator’s intent and to enforce that intent to the extent allowed by law.So, 25 years after her death, and three court fights later, it was finally clear that Vada’s will created a life estate in her son that would pass to her grandchildren upon his death. My best guess is that legal fees for drafting and executing a simple will in Robertson County in the early 1990s would have only been several hundred dollars, at most and likely less than that. I can only imagine the legal bills incurred by both sides as they fought up the Texas court system, easily many, many thousands of dollars. And how to measure the wasted time spent fighting and agonizing and plotting and scheming? Worse yet, this was a legal brawl between immediate family. Holiday gatherings, if they even happen, will never be the same. Bless their hearts.Perhaps some good will come of this. As they say in Texas, good judgment comes from experience, and a lot of that comes from bad judgment.
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