Camellias and the weevils that attack their seeds seem locked in conflict. The thicker a camellia grows its protective woody covering around its seeds, the longer the feeding tube on some weevil to break through and devour. John R. Thompson talked about such “coevolutionary arms races” in Current Biology1 and asked whether such wars can go on forever, leading to increased exaggeration of traits. The answer is, apparently, there are limits. Traits vary in a mosaic pattern across populations. Not all camellias are infested by beetles with the longest boring tools. As with any war, there are hotspots and coldspots. The dynamics of arms races seem to buffer both species against extremes.Collectively, these studies suggest that coevolution is a pervasive process that continually reshapes interspecific interactions across broad geographic areas. And that has important implications for our understanding of the role of coevolution in fields ranging from epidemiology to conservation biology. Many diseases, for example malaria, vary geographically both in parasite virulence and host resistance, potentially creating regions of coevolutionary hotspots and coldspots. The spread of introduced species seems be creating new geographic mosaics of coevolution as some species become invasive and coevolve with native species in different ways in different regions or drive rapid evolution in native species, sometimes in less than a hundred years or so. The results for Japanese camellia and camellia weevils reinforce the developing view that interactions coevolve as a geographic mosaic across landscapes, and it is often difficult for one partner to get ahead of the other (or others) everywhere. (Emphasis added.)1John R. Thompson, “Coevolution: The Geographic Mosaic of Coevolutionary Arms Races,” Current Biology, Volume 15, Issue 24, 24 December 2005, pages R992-R994, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.11.046.This appears to provide more slippage on the evolutionary treadmill (see 03/17/2003 entry). Though the word “evolution” is involved, don’t be confused; this has nothing to do with macroevolution, like bacteria evolving into people. Coevolution leads to exaggerated traits between two interacting species, like the beaks of hummingbirds and the flowers they pollinate. As with all other observed forms of microevolution, including Darwin’s famous finches, it involves the modification of existing traits – not the origin of new ones. Notice how quickly changes can result; Thompson referred to rapid “evolution” in native species in less than 100 years after an intruder was introduced. Young-earth creationists could use such concepts to explain the rapid diversification of varieties and species within created kinds, and there would be nothing Thompson or the Darwinists could do to prove them wrong. Studies like this do not establish that coevolution can be extrapolated endlessly into macroevolution. In fact, the quote above seems to indicate otherwise: there are limits to the amount of change in the “coevolutionary arms race.” World War II did not produce Superman. (Visited 65 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest We’re at least two weeks away yet for harvesting anything unless it gets hot again.The tile lines are dry and in between the plants are stunted and green. There are some fields in the area that are pretty even that may come off this week. I know I do not have any ready yet.I checked some corn and the moisture is anywhere from 26% to 27% on the tile line. Then in between the plants are green and little and I don’t know what we are going to do. It will be interesting. I have hydraulic deck plates but we may have to run all of the tile lines first and readjust. There will be some different shenanigans going on to get ready for this harvest.We are finishing our last ditching job. We are done with tile until beans and corn are off and then we have another 140 acres to do this fall.We got nine-tenths to an inch with this last rain. The town of Delphos got 6 to 7.5 inches of rain and were flooded out again. Hancock County didn’t get too much. The rain had to help some of the beans.The cover crops are coming up. I have some rye to plant this week. With the manure I thought it might get too tall this winter so I wanted to wait a bit to plant that.I think harvest could go fast once it get started because only half the trucks will be going up and down the road, but then we have all of these green plants still out there. I don’t know what to expect.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The Propane Education & Research Council partnered with three different agricultural companies to develop new fuel-efficient grain drying technologies that will help agricultural operations save money.PERC invested in the research and development of GSI’s heat reclamation system, Mathews Company’s redesigned Legacy Series grain dryers, and Sukup Manufacturing Co.’s new burner design. PERC provided industry expertise and financial support through the research, development, and testing process for the new technologies.“PERC prioritizes the development of new technology that advances energy efficiency,” said Cinch Munson, director of agriculture business development at the Propane Education & Research Council. “By working with leading agricultural manufacturers to advance efficient grain drying technologies, we can help ensure that farmers operate as cost-effectively as possible.”Energy savings were the driving force behind PERC and GSI’s development of a new heat reclamation system for tower dryers. The reclaimer was engineered to capture air from the lower part of the drying portion, above the cooling section. It separates out the hot dry air from wet air, and carries very little chaff or other debris back into the dryer. The result is a system that saves up to 30% of propane at 32 degrees Fahrenheit during the drying season. The system is available now and can be installed on any new tower dryer or retrofitted to any Zimmerman-style dryer that has been built since 2001.PERC also worked with Mathews Company to achieve energy savings through innovation. Mathews Company completely redesigned the fan, burner, and control system found in its profile-style Legacy Series product line. The newly redesigned profile-style dryer now offers many of the same technological advantages and operational efficiencies associated with a tower dryer. By introducing tower dryer elements to a profile-style dryer, Mathews Company has created a more efficient dryer with lower operating costs.Sukup and PERC partnered to increase energy savings by redesigning a grain dryer burner. The new highly efficient Octagon Burner uses less propane to achieve the temperature rise needed to dry grain. The result is increased fuel savings and lowered CO2 emissions. An added benefit is the burner’s aluminum manifold, which increases the durability and longevity of the burner. All Sukup 2017 axial-fan dryers will utilize the new Octagon Burner, and they are also available as replacement burners for older dryers.“These new technologies result in a highly efficient, cost-effective grain drying process,” Munson said. “Drying your own grain is more viable than ever. With propane prices remaining low, now is an excellent time to take more control of your harvest with a new grain dryer.”For more information about propane use on the farm and the 2017 Propane Farm Incentive Program, visit propane.com/farmincentive.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The Crawford County cattlemen are planning to tour two beef finishing operations in the Bellevue Ohio area on March 3rd and they would like to extend an invitation to anyone across the state to join them for the tours. The first stop will be 10:00 am at Lepley’s new slatted floor finishing barn; located at 4084 Prairie Rd Bellevue. From there we will be traveling a few miles to Erf Farm’s, 4516 Yingling Rd Bellevue, to see a dairy beef finishing operation. They purchase deacon calves and raise them through finishing using some the latest technology to feed the deacon calves.From there we will travel to York Animal Hospital (Dr Mike Mull) 1184 W Main St Bellevue, where we will have lunch with Kevin Elder ODA LEPP. He will be discussing Lake Erie issues and manure hauling regulations. We plan to finish by 1:30 pm.We will be leaving from Family Farm & Home, 2460 E. Mansfield Street in Bucyrus at 9:00 am, and will have a bus available there if people want a ride with us from Bucyrus. Once it is full we can travel as a caravan to the first stop to keep the group together.Please RSVP by March 1st, or for more information, contact OSU Extension in Crawford County at 419-562-8731 or email@example.com. For information or directions during the day of the tour call 419-561-1216.
Everyone has had an opinion on the next person who should take over as the head coach of the Indian football team. While some have spoken about the need to have foreign coaches, others have questioned the need to look at other countries when there are enough experienced people in India.Speaking to IANS, former India captain Bhaichung Bhutia has put all debates to rest and said that the profile of the coach is what matters and not the nationality.”It depends on the kind of profile the person has. Indian or foreigner isn’t the question here. It is about the kind of work he has done,” he explained.The first global face of Indian football said that for him to debate the standard of Indian and foreign coaches is very difficult and the decision should have nothing to do with the origin of the coach.”It is very difficult to say whether I prefer a foreigner or I prefer an Indian. The decision needs to be taken keeping only the experience and the caliber of the person and nothing else,” he added.The All India Football Federation (AIFF) has decided to participate in the upcoming edition of the King’s Cup in Thailand after four decades – India last participated in the tournament in 1977 – and a call on the next India coach is now a matter of priority.AIFF has already expressed its inability to hire a high-profile coach owing to the financial constraints that comes with it and now, with Bhaichung focusing on the profile of the next coach, it will be interesting to see if the AIFF pays heed to one of the best footballers to have played the game for India.advertisementIn the past it has been observed that whenever a coach is given a longer stint, results have been achieved. Bob Houghton, one of the most successful foreign coaches, worked with the Indian team from 2006 till 2011. Stephen Constantine was the head coach from 2015 till 2019. If the national team achieved its best ranking (FIFA Ranking 94) in 1996 under the Uzbek coach Rustam Akramov, the lowest ranking of 173 was also achieved in 2015 when Wim Koevermans was in charge of the Indian team.So, what matters is not the nationality, but the profile as well as the tenure given to him to adapt to Indian players and understand their needs and requirements. With the success that the team attained in the Asian Cup, it will be crucial that Indian football doesn’t take any step backward from here.Also Read | Asia’s 2022 World Cup qualifiers drawn, features continent’s lowest-ranked national teams