Camellias and the weevils that attack their seeds seem locked in conflict. The thicker a camellia grows its protective woody covering around its seeds, the longer the feeding tube on some weevil to break through and devour. John R. Thompson talked about such “coevolutionary arms races” in Current Biology1 and asked whether such wars can go on forever, leading to increased exaggeration of traits. The answer is, apparently, there are limits. Traits vary in a mosaic pattern across populations. Not all camellias are infested by beetles with the longest boring tools. As with any war, there are hotspots and coldspots. The dynamics of arms races seem to buffer both species against extremes.Collectively, these studies suggest that coevolution is a pervasive process that continually reshapes interspecific interactions across broad geographic areas. And that has important implications for our understanding of the role of coevolution in fields ranging from epidemiology to conservation biology. Many diseases, for example malaria, vary geographically both in parasite virulence and host resistance, potentially creating regions of coevolutionary hotspots and coldspots. The spread of introduced species seems be creating new geographic mosaics of coevolution as some species become invasive and coevolve with native species in different ways in different regions or drive rapid evolution in native species, sometimes in less than a hundred years or so. The results for Japanese camellia and camellia weevils reinforce the developing view that interactions coevolve as a geographic mosaic across landscapes, and it is often difficult for one partner to get ahead of the other (or others) everywhere. (Emphasis added.)1John R. Thompson, “Coevolution: The Geographic Mosaic of Coevolutionary Arms Races,” Current Biology, Volume 15, Issue 24, 24 December 2005, pages R992-R994, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.11.046.This appears to provide more slippage on the evolutionary treadmill (see 03/17/2003 entry). Though the word “evolution” is involved, don’t be confused; this has nothing to do with macroevolution, like bacteria evolving into people. Coevolution leads to exaggerated traits between two interacting species, like the beaks of hummingbirds and the flowers they pollinate. As with all other observed forms of microevolution, including Darwin’s famous finches, it involves the modification of existing traits – not the origin of new ones. Notice how quickly changes can result; Thompson referred to rapid “evolution” in native species in less than 100 years after an intruder was introduced. Young-earth creationists could use such concepts to explain the rapid diversification of varieties and species within created kinds, and there would be nothing Thompson or the Darwinists could do to prove them wrong. Studies like this do not establish that coevolution can be extrapolated endlessly into macroevolution. In fact, the quote above seems to indicate otherwise: there are limits to the amount of change in the “coevolutionary arms race.” World War II did not produce Superman. (Visited 65 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Dancers perform during the closing ceremony of the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, Saturday, Nov. 27, 2010. APThe skies lit up with dazzling fireworks as an emotional China brought the curtains down on the biggest Asian Games in a riot of colour, foot-tapping music and a cultural extravaganza at the Haixinsha Island on the Pearl River in Guangzhou on Saturday.If the opening ceremony held at the same riverside venue on November 12th was high on technical wizardry, the closing was a heart-touching display of warmth by the people of this South China city whose infrastructure has improved remendously as a result of hosting the Games which saw India record their best-ever medal haul till date.Late charge helps IndiaNov 26 | India record its bestCLOSING EVENT: SEE PHOTOSHIGHLIGHTSAsiad closing: Vijender India’s flagbearerIndia finished sixth on the medal rostrum with a record 14 gold, 17 silver and 33 bronze for an overall tally of 64, eclipsing their earlier record of 57 medals in the 1982 Asian Games in Delhi.South Korea’s Ji Youngjun celebrates with his national flag after winning the men’s marathon at the 2010 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, Saturday, Nov. 27, 2010. APThe closing ceremony was also used by the Games hosts to present cultural segments representing the different regions of the continent, including South Asia in which Indian singers Ravi Tripathi and Tanya Gupta enthralled the capacity crowd.Hosts China were unstoppable in their relentless march to titles and at the end of the Games had an incredible harvest of 199 gold in an overall haul of over 400 medals, proving once again that they are in the top-most echelons of world sports.advertisementKorea finished way behind in second place while Japan were third that underlined the fact that the Asian Games, the second largest sports event after the Olympic Games, are still being overwhelmingly dominated by the far eastern nations of the continent.The prelude to the official part of the ceremony was punctuated by dance of Qiling (a legendary animal symbolizing good luck) to celebrate the success of the Games that was followed by an exhibition of acrobatics and dance.Performers staged “Dragon drunk on the Pearl River”, “Painting of Toy figuring in Emotion” and “Wind of the Yao Ethnic Group” dances while flashbacks of the Asian Games actions were shown on sail-shaped screens before the Chinese President Hu Jintao and Olympic Council of Asia Chief Sheikh Ahmad Al-Fahad Al-Sabah entered the arena to the strains of the Chinese Military Band.With nine plumes of red smoke rising up from the Guangzhou Tower, an athlete jumped out of the screen while the eight sail-shaped screens showed some memorable moments of the Games competitions.The plumes changed shape one by one and the fireworks started on the Guangzhou Tower to symbolize the success of the Games and the happiness it produced. The five-starred red flag of China was unfurled and the hosts? national anthem was played by the Military band.A small cultural segment was then presented with fishing lights shaped as starlight and the crescent moon used as major props to create a dream-like atmosphere of changing colours and flowing figures, the images giving the crowd an impression of fairy tales and scenes of fishing.The face of a smiling child appeared which turned into a beautiful girl from this city of ten million who frolics in the night sky amidst the stars.When she extended her hand all the stars and moon fell into her grasp and she, with a laugh, threw the stars and moon to the Games Torch Tower in the centre of the square.As they fell to the ground, hundreds of children appeared like magic and scattered in all directions to form the Asian Games emblem.A ship resembling a crescent moon with singing children on board gently set sail on the front waterway and hundreds of chorus singers with stars in their hands in four groups entered from two sides.A child singer picked up a Lingnan-style fishing lantern made of bamboo splits ecclosed by paper from the water.Almost immediately several fishing lights in different colours appeared on the scene winding in groups or strings through the site as the children with star lights in their hands flashed those lights to give an impression of a sea of lights.This was followed by the representation of India and the Ganga with the holy river appearing on the sail-shaped screen and running towards the famous temples of India while the screen also showed images of the Taj Mahal and modern architecture.advertisementSeveral dancers led by Cai Yushan and Xi Chuhang performed to the singing of Tripathi and Gupta and there were also motorcycle stunts done in front of the Games Torch Tower.One hundred men performers with Indian flower wreaths in their hands danced in two groups behind the bikes and formed two crescent moons on both sides of the Torch Tower while over 1000 chorus members holding multi-coloured Indian light-reflecting towels danced in harmony.When the two Indian singers came to the front, male dancers ran along the two sides of the Torch Tower to form a triangular pattern and danced with gusto while around 200 women dancers ran out, divided themselves in two groups and performed various Indian dance forms.The men and women dancers came together to form a semi circle they danced together to the song in typical Bollywood style.The other regions of the continent were also given their prominence in the cultural milieu before flashbacks of the Asian Games competitions and athletes being awarded their medals were shown along with emotional scenes, symbolizing the excitement and harmony that was visible during the Games.The cultural show ended with all the participants coming on to the stage forming different patterns while singing and dancing with abandon to bring an end to the cultural part and the commencement of the formal part of the ceremony with the arrival of the athletes.The Indian flag was carried by gold medal winning star boxer Vijender Singh with his left hand in a cast following the thumb injury he sustained during last night’s final against two-time world champion Atoev Abbos of Uzbekistan.OCA President Sheikh Al-Sabah, accompanied by the president of the Chinese Olympic Committee, Liu Peng, executive president of the Games organizing committee Huang Huahua, and the mayor of Guangzhou Wan Qingliang, delivered the keynote address and declared the 16th Asiad closed.The OCA flag was then lowered and the OCA anthem played before the national flag of Korea, the next Games hosts at Incheon in 2014 was raised, in the presence of the vice president of the Korean Olympic Committee and the chief of the Incheon Games organizing committee.Guangzhou mayor Qingliang handed over the Asian Games torch to the OCA chief who, in turn, handed them over to the mayor of Incheon.Later the flag of the first Games held in Delhi in 1951 and the OCA flag were handed over to the Korean representatives by Huahua and Peng.The Koreans presented a short segment to the accompaniment of percussion instruments and taekwondo, the country’s martial arts, which is also part of the Games programme and “Welcome to Incheon” and “See you at Incheon in 2014” were flashed on the screen.The Games flame was extinguished before the fireworks lit up the night sky to signal the end of the closing ceremony.MORE MEDALS FOR CHINAEarlier, just five gold medals were on Saturday presented at the Asian Games, providing a rather slow-paced denouement for an event the Olympic Council of Asia president referred to as “one of the best ever.”advertisementZhou Chunxiu won the women’s marathon, giving China its 198th gold medal of the games, one shy of its eventual total. Myanmar took its first two – in the men’s and women’s doubles finals in sepaktakraw, and OCA chief Sheikh Ahmad Al-Fahad Al-Sabah told a closing news conference that even a military conflict on the Korean peninsula last Tuesday during the games could not damage the event’s image.North and South Korean “athletes stood shoulder-to-shoulder to compete even though there had been some problems in their countries,” Al-Sabah said.After 48 gold medals were presented Friday in a hectic penultimate day, Zhou won the first of the last-day medals when she finished the marathon in 2 hours, 25 minutes, about 90 seconds ahead of her Chinese compatriot Zhui Xiaolon. Kim Kum Ok of North Korea won the bronze.Ji Young-jun of South Korea won gold in the men’s marathon, finishing in 2:11.11, with Japan’s Yukihiro Kitaoka second. That ended China’s chances of capturing 200 gold medals at Guangzhou.Myanmar, formerly known as Burma, won its previous gold in sepak takraw in 1998 in the women’s regu division of the acrobatic volleyball-like sport in which competitors use just about everything but their hands to get a rattan ball over the net. Myanmar’s men beat South Korea 2-0 and its women defeated China 2-1.”We have a new flag and we are proud to have won the gold medal under it,” said Myanmar coach Kyaw Zin Moe.China won the first gold of the games on Nov. 13 when Yuan Xiaochao finished first in wushu martial arts event, and took the last on Saturday. The Chinese women’s volleyball team came back from two sets down to beat South Korea 21-25, 22-25, 25-10, 25-17, 16-14, leaving its final gold medal count for the games at 199.The closing ceremony, featuring a performance by the military band of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the official handover from Guangzhou to Incheon, was scheduled for later Saturday.With inputs from PTI/AP
FoxTel will serve up a double helping of Origin action with a two hour block of coverage of the 2006 State of Origin Series featuring back to back Women’s and Men’s Open games between traditional rivals Queensland and New South Wales on Wednesday 15 November 2006.The two States battled for the Origin crown across 13 age divisions at the Brisbane Metropolitan Touch Association’s Whites Hill Sporting Complex on 4-5 August 2006.Fox Sports 3 will show Game 3 of the Women’s Open and Game 2 of the Men’s Open Series in their entirity.The games will be replayed across the three Fox Sports channels during November, so be sure to organise yourself and your friends to catch all the action and excitement of the 2006 State of Origin Series on FoxTel.Please check FoxTel electronic guides for updated screening times and programming.Fox 3 Screening Times SOO for all States Wednesday 15 November 20062.00am (Women’s Game 3) 3.00am (Men’s Game 2) – WA3.30am (Women’s Game 3) 4.30am (Men’s Game 2) – NT4.00 am (Women’s Game 3) 5.00am (Men’s Game 2) – QLD4.30am (Women’s Game 3) 5.30am (Men’s Game 2) – SA5.00am (Women’s Game 3) 6.00am (Men’s Game 2) – NSW, ACT, VIC, TAS
Liverpool loanee Kane signs new extensionby Freddie Taylor10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool have penned Herbie Kane to a new contract and extended his loan spell with Doncaster Rovers.The 20-year-old midfielder has starred for League One side Rovers this season, scoring six goals from 26 appearances.”It is massive, coming from a massive club like Liverpool, so I’m happy,” Kane said after signing the new deal.”I was excited to get it done. It took a lot of hard work to get this, but thankfully it is done. Hopefully I can carry on working hard and get to where I want to be.”On his spell with Donny, he added: “I’ve enjoyed every minute of it, to be honest, I’m just trying to do as well as I can for myself and help the team, but also trying to improve.”Hopefully people at Liverpool notice that I’m doing well, and hopefully when I come back to Liverpool it will impact it.”My aim is to come back in the summer and try to make a footprint. I’m hoping I come back in the summer and impress the manager in pre-season.” TagsTransfersAbout the authorFreddie TaylorShare the loveHave your say
“The Government of Jamaica is well aware of the closely bound interaction between energy security and food security. Prime Minister, the Most Hon. Andrew Holness, says that for agriculture to maximise its full potential, high energy costs must be kept in check.“We cannot speak of transforming and modernising our agricultural sector without addressing how to alleviate those high energy costs,” he noted.“The Government of Jamaica is well aware of the closely bound interaction between energy security and food security.We are now developing an energy ecosystem that is diverse, environmentally sensitive and affordable,” he added.The Prime Minister was addressing the opening ceremony of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Regional Conference for Latin America and the Caribbean on March 7 at the Montego Bay Convention Centre, St. James.He noted that the Government has a target to meet 30 per cent of the country’s energy needs through renewable sources by 2030, and “we are currently at 18 per cent and on track to achieve that 30 per cent”.He said that the Ministry of Science, Energy and Technology will also explore the utilisation of biofuels to further diversify the country’s energy sources.The Prime Minister argued that the possibilities for the agricultural sector greatly increase when electricity and other energy-related costs are less vulnerable to volatile oil prices.He argued that with diversified energy sources, small farmers and agro-processors, and others who are employed in the agricultural sector will benefit from reduced operational costs through the use of renewable energy.Such investment, he said, will serve to boost the agricultural sector, which he noted is important for rural development and economic growth.“This is significant, because as empirical data have shown, in Jamaica overall, economic growth is strongly positively correlated with the growth in the agricultural sector,” the Prime Minister said.“We are addressing the crucial nexus between energy and food security and finding solutions to secure both to put these two sectors in sync, which is a necessary component for sustainable development,” the Prime Minister added. Prime Minister, the Most Hon. Andrew Holness, says that for agriculture to maximise its full potential, high energy costs must be kept in check. Story Highlights He noted that the Government has a target to meet 30 per cent of the country’s energy needs through renewable sources by 2030, and “we are currently at 18 per cent and on track to achieve that 30 per cent”.
25Jul Rep. Hernandez highlights progress made on top priorities Categories: Hernandez News State Rep. Shane Hernandez of Port Huron today said he is pleased of the progress made so far this legislative session on the issues most important to the people of Sanilac and St. Clair counties, however he cautions that there is still much work left to do.“When I meet with residents in our district what I hear time and time again is that people want less government regulation and they want the government to live within its means,” Hernandez said. “Just like families across Michigan are tightening their belts, my goal as a member of the Appropriations Committee is to cut inefficient programs and eliminate waste in state government. I’m proud to say we have made significant progress in accomplishing that goal.”Hernandez noted that overall growth in spending for next year’s budget does not exceed the rate of inflation.“While the budget restricts the growth of government, we still managed to fund schools at the highest level in state history,” Hernandez said. “We also provided a record amount of funding to fix our state’s crumbling roads and bridges.”Hernandez also noted that he supported House Bill 4608, which eliminated an unnecessary government regulation requiring painters and decorators to obtain a license to work on residential properties in Michigan.“This is a pointless rule that hinders job growth and does nothing to protect the public,” the first-term representative said. “Eliminating this licensing requirement opens up more job opportunities for people with the talent to paint and decorate homes in Michigan.”Another priority, increasing government transparency, was addressed when the House voted in March to expand open record disclosure rules to the governor’s office at state legislators.“I hold a strong belief that residents deserve more transparency from their elected officials,” Hernandez said. “Michigan is one of a few states that still exempts its governor, lieutenant governor and the Legislature from sunshine laws. It’s time we remove these exemptions and help improve government accountability.”While the House has accomplished many goals in the first six months of the 2017-18 legislative session, Hernandez said he continues to work hard on behalf of people in Sanilac and St. Clair counties.“We’ve come a long way, but there are still a lot of issues that we can address to continue to improve the quality of life for Michigan families,” Hernandez said. “I encourage residents to contact my office if they have any ideas or concerns they would like to discuss.”Rep. Hernandez’s office can be reached by calling (517) 373-0835 or emailing ShaneHernandez@house.mi.gov.###
Vivendi-owned French service provider SFR could launch its IPO as early as July, according to press reports.Vivendi CEO Jean-Yves Charlier, speaking on the margins of a conference organised in Paris, was reported by Reuters as having said the company is well advanced in its preparations for the spin-off.Pressed on the date, Charlier said the process could kick off at the beginning of July.Vivendi has last year indicated that an SFR IPO would likely be launched by the end of this year or the beginning of 2015.French cable operator Numericable’s principal owner Altice, the investment vehicle of Patrick Drahi, reportedly recently began a fresh move to acquire SFR, putting together an all-cash offer of between €10-13 billion raised from a mix of debt and cash raised from Numericable and Altice’s own IPOs.
In this study we compared customized ICD programming, standard programming and programming with extended detection times,” explains Burger. “Our department has used the extended detection time (the time before the ICD kicks in) since 2010 and this gives the heart a chance to regain its rhythm spontaneously,”adds study author Thomas Pezawas from the Medical University of Vienna’s Division of Cardiology. People with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) are carrying a form of life insurance in their chests. This is only meant to be activated if their hearts lose their rhythm to such a degree that their lives are in acute danger: this primarily concerns ventricular tachycardia or atrial fibrillation. Depending upon the situation, the ICD emits a painless pulse or immediately gives a (painful) electric shock until normal cardiac rhythm has been restored. Related StoriesHeart disease is still the number 1 killer in Australia, according to latest figuresNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerStudy explores role of iron in over 900 diseasesCompared with standardized programming, programming with extended detection times could reduce the number of unnecessary ICD shocks by 29%. Furthermore, the recent study showed that this procedure is equally appropriate for all patients, irrespective of their gender, underlying disease or type of device.”We can refer to excellent results accompanied by very high levels of patient safety. Previously published annual rates for the number of unnecessary ICD shocks were between 5.1 and 7.9%. We are now aiming for 3.7%, which will be a top international value,” says principal investigator Thomas Pezawas, summarizing the results, which have now been published in “Circulation J”.Long-standing center of excellence for defibrillatorsThese results will also be important for other defibrillator centers, since the data available in this field was previously very thin. These new findings should also encourage other centers to adopt a less aggressive programming strategy, say the MedUni Vienna experts: with the aim of achieving excellent protection from sudden cardiac death while reducing the number of inappropriate shocks. The recommendation made by the study authors to allow the ICD to “observe” for slightly longer (a matter of seconds) before reacting, could drive a paradigm shift in treatment. Unfortunately, in some patients, this therapy overshoots the mark. This results in premature or unnecessary shocks with the associated detriment to quality-of-life,”says study author Achim L. Burger from MedUni Vienna’s Division of Cardiology. Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Oct 24 2018Sudden cardiac death is a common cause of death in patients with congenital or acquired heart disease. An implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD) can effectively put a stop to any underlying cardiac arrhythmia. In a long-term observational study involving 1,500 patients, researchers from MedUni Vienna’s Department of Medicine II (Division of Cardiology) have now shown that the programming selected for the implanted defibrillators (ICDs) plays a major role. It was found that the most “defensive” possible procedure is safe and, at the same time, significantly reduces inappropriate therapy. Source:https://www.meduniwien.ac.at/web/en/about-us/news/detailsite/news-im-oktober-2018/defibrillation-for-sudden-cardiac-death-it-all-comes-down-to-the-programming/
Source: https://www.thehastingscenter.org/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 26 2019Federal Right to Try: Where Is It Going?Kelly Folkers, Carolyn Chapman, and Barbara RedmanMany patients with terminal or serious illness who have exhausted their treatment options want access to experimental therapies they hope will help them. A federal right-to-try law, enacted in May 2018, permits physicians to treat patients with investigational medical products without authorization from the Food and Drug Administration, under specific circumstances. But this right-to-try pathway may have undermined the FDA’s role in monitoring the safety and efficacy of drugs, and it might even have created a loophole by which pharmaceutical companies can sell unapproved drugs to the public. Kelly Folkers is a research associate, Carolyn Chapman is a postdoctoral fellow, and Barbara Redman is an associate at the Division of Medical Ethics at the NYU School of Medicine.Citizen Science and GamificationKarola V. Kreitmar and David C. MagnusCitizen science describes the concept of nonprofessional volunteers assisting researchers in collecting data with the goal of contributing to scientific knowledge. Examples include playing games like Foldit and EteRNA to experiment with the shapes of biological materials, which has led to important scientific or medical advancements. But questions remain about how to conceive of these gamers: are they, in effect, scientific researchers? Are they research participants? Or are they simply players? Karola V. Kreitmar and David C. Magnus write that they occupy a position different from existing roles, and new standards and guidelines are needed to address their participation. The authors also propose that gamers be given appropriate credit and compensation for their discoveries. Kreitmar is an assistant professor in the Department of Medical History and Bioethics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Magnus is the Thomas A. Raffin professor of medicine and biomedical ethics and a professor of medicine and pediatrics at Stanford University.Related StoriesAMSBIO offers new, best-in-class CAR-T cell range for research and immunotherapySchwann cells capable of generating protective myelin over nerves finds researchOlympus Europe and Cytosurge join hands to accelerate drug development, single cell researchAt Law: Conscience and Religious Freedom Division Marks Its First Anniversary with ActionSandra H. JohnsonIt’s been a year since the Trump administration established the Conscience and Religious Freedom Division within the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Civil Rights to increase the legal protection of religious and conscience objections in health care. The division “is already having a significant impact,” writes Sandra H. Johnson. It “is causing health care entities, including hospitals, research organizations, and clinics, to change policies and practices.” She continues: “Administrative agencies also shape the law in what they decide not to pursue. For example, OCR has suspended enforcement of the Affordable Care Act prohibition against gender?identity discrimination.” Johnson is a professor emerita of law and health care ethics at the Center for Health Law Studies at Saint Louis University School of Law.Also in this issue: Changing the Question on surrogate decision-making Empathetic Practice: The Struggle and Virtue of Empathizing with a Patient’s Suffering Perspective: Achieving Meaningful Access to Medicaid
It’s very hard for us to measure and express our pain, including its expectation and associated anxiety. Right now, we have a one to 10 rating system, but that’s far from a reliable and objective pain measurement.”Alex DaSilva Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 28 2019Many patients, especially those who are anesthetized or emotionally challenged, cannot communicate precisely about their pain.For this reason, University of Michigan researchers have developed a technology to help clinicians “see” and map patient pain in real-time, through special augmented reality glasses. Their small feasibility study appears in the Journal of Medical Internet Research.The technology was tested on 21 volunteer dental patients, and researchers hope to one day include other types of pain and conditions. It’s years away from widespread use in a clinical setting, but the feasibility study is a good first step for dental patients, said Alex DaSilva, associate professor at the U-M School of Dentistry and director of the Headache and Orofacial Pain Effort Lab.The portable CLARAi (clinical augmented reality and artificial intelligence) platform combines visualization with brain data using neuroimaging to navigate through a patient’s brain while they’re in the chair. Related StoriesHow a simple MRI scan can help patients with anginaStudy shows potential culprit behind LupusAre Chronic Pain Relief Drugs for Children Effective?In the study, researchers triggered pain by administering cold to the teeth. Researchers used brain pain data to develop algorithms that, when coupled with new software and neuroimaging hardware, predicted pain or the absence of it about 70% of the time.Participants wore a sensor-outfitted cap that detected changes to blood flow and oxygenation, thus measuring brain activity and responses to pain. That information was transmitted to a computer and interpreted.Wearing special augmented reality glasses (in this case, the Microsoft HoloLens), researchers viewed the subject’s brain activity in real time on a reconstructed brain template, while the subjects sat in the clinical chair. The red and blue dots on the image denote location and level of brain activity, and this “pain signature” was mirror-displayed on the augmented reality screen. The more pain signatures the algorithm learns to read, the more accurate the pain assessment. Source:University of Michigan